When does a day start?

When does a day start?

When does a day start? Does The Sabbath really begin at evening (sunset to sunset) like we have been told for so many years? Why didn’t the Creator say,“and the evening and the evening”, day 1? Could it be possible that the words “evening and the morning” from Genesis the first chapter mean something else?

Many Sabbath Keepers have come to the conclusion that the phrase “the evening and the morning” determines the beginning of a new day. Is this your thinking? Creation started with night first, then the light (day) came. Therefore, evening equals the night and the morning equals the day. This constitutes one day.

Do you believe this? The evening equals the night portion of the day and the morning equals the daylight portion of the day. Can this be proven from the scriptures?

Let the scriptures speak!

First, here are some graphics of the creation account as they show the passage of time.

Notice there is creation activity during the day, AND there was evening, AND there was morning.

The next day begins where the first day ended – in the morning:

Also notice that on the second day, Elohim does not declare anything good.

Here is Rashbam’s (Rashi’s grandson) interpretation of Genesis 1:5 “5. God named the newly-formed unit of twelve hours of light “day” and the newly-formed unit of twelve hours of darkness “night,” and they have been so called ever since, day always preceding night. Daylight turned to evening as its light faded; then, morning broke as the morning star signaled the end of night. The first of the six days of creation referred to in the Ten Commandments was, thus, completed and the second day began.” You can read all of his interpretation of Genesis at http://www.js.emory.edu/BLUMENTHAL/GenRashbam.html

I included the above quote for those who hold more to the rabbinic model, to show that the rabbi’s don’t all agree.

On the seventh day, He doesn’t declare anything good, and there is no mention of evening and morning.

The same pattern of creation is duplicated in the command to instruct children in Deuteronomy 6:7

And it occurs in the cycle of life as well:


Genesis 1:1-5 (King James Version)

1 In the beginning Elohim created the heaven and the earth.
2 And the earth was (became or had become) without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of Elohim moved upon the face of the waters.
3 And Elohim said, Let there be light: and there was light,.
4 And Elohim saw the light, that it was good: and Elohim divided the light from the darkness. (The creator separates the light from the darkness)
5 And Elohim called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day. Why didn’t The Creator just say, “and the evening and the evening” were the first day.

We see this same pattern on each day “And the evening and the morning” second day, third day, fourth day, fifth day, and the sixth day.

Light = Day and Darkness = Night … remember this.

What is the evening and the morning?

Definition of “Evening”

The word evening comes from the Hebrew root word “arab” which means “to grow dark”. See below.

Definition of “Morning”

Let’s also look up the word “Day”

Basic Strong’s Concordance Usage 101

The word “evening” #H6153 according to Strong’s Concordance means:
1) evening, night, sunset
a) evening, sunset
b) night

So which is it? Evening or sunset or night?

“Evening and sunset” is the primary meaning and “night” is the secondary meaning. To get a clearer understanding of the meaning for “evening” we have to look at the “root word” from which it is derived. That Hebrew word is “ARAB” which means “to grow dark”. The word night is not a good definition of the word “evening”.

However, there is a separate Hebrew word for “night” and that word is “layil”. Always look at the context in which a word is used.

Let’s read Genesis 1:1-4 again using light = day and darkness = night from Genesis 1:5

1 In the beginning Elohim created the heavens and the earth.
2 And the earth was (had become or became) without form, and void; and night was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of Elohim moved upon the face of the waters.
3 And Elohim said, Let there be day: and there was day.
4 And Elohim saw the day, that it was good: and Elohim divided the day from the night.
5 ….. And it came to be evening (growing dark) and it came to be morning (growing light): the first Day.

Notice the translation from The Scriptures and The Hebrew Interlinear Bible of Genesis 1:5


The evening and the morning does not and cannot equal one day. If it did, then we would be keeping the Sabbath from sunset until sunrise in the darkness of night. Then I would ask you, why are you keeping the Sabbath from sunset to sunset instead of sunset to morning? Therefore, we know that there is a deeper meaning of “and the evening and the morning”.

Just because the darkness (night) existed on earth first doesn’t necessarily mean that the day begins at sunset or in darkness. The evening cannot exist unless there is light (day) first. In fact the evening is part of the day, but we’ll prove this later. The evening marks the ending of a day going into the night. The morning marks the period where night ends and day begins. And “the evening and the morning” are transitional periods that separate the day from the night.

When the light (day) was in the process of being removed from darkness (night), it was evening, and the coming of light brought morning, the completion of a day. A 24 hour period should be reckoned from morning to morning. However, the 24 hour period consists of The Day and The Night.

The progression would look like this:


C. H. Leupold (Exposition of Genesis, Vol. 1, pp. 57-58) states: [Gen. 1:5], presents not an addition of items but the conclusion of a progression. On this day there had been the creation of heaven and earth in the rough, then the creation of light, the approval of light, the separation of day and night. Now with evening the divine activities ceased: they are works of light not works of darkness. The evening “erbhof” merges into night and the night terminates with morning. But by the time morning is reached, the first day is concluded, as the account says succinctly, ‘the first day,’ and everything is in readiness for the second day’s task. For ‘evening’ marks the conclusion of the day, and ‘morning’ marks the conclusion of the night. It is these conclusions, which terminate the preceding, that are to be made prominent.”

Upon searching the scriptures you will discover that a 24-hour period consists of morning, day, evening and night. The day portion is a 12 hour period that occurs between the morning and the evening. Still using Genesis 1 as our foundation we see that in verse 5, the light is called day and the dark is called night, furthermore we see that the evening and morning are the separation markers between the day and night. Also notice that throughout Genesis 1 we see the words “and the evening and the morning” six times indicating the days when creation occurred. However, in Genesis 2:1-3 we see that only the seventh day was mentioned and was made set-apart. There is no “and the evening and the morning was the seventh-day.” It doesn’t exist. There is no reference of a “seventh night” or “Sabbath night” as set-apart. Only the seventh day was set apart by The Most High and should be observed as the Sabbath Day or Shabbat Yom.

Does the evening start the day (going into night) or is it a part of the day (light)?

John 11:9-10 (King James Version)
Understanding The Day

9 The Messiah answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbled not, because he seeth the light of this world. 10 But if a man walk in the night, he stumbled, because there is no light in him.

When words like tomorrow, the next day, in that day, or the same day are used in the Bible, this indicates that the evening is a continuation of the day and not the beginning of a new day. You’ll be able to see this clearly in the following verses.

Judges 19:9 (King James Version)

9 And when the man rose up to depart, he, and his concubine, and his servant, his father in law, the damsel’s father, said unto him, Behold, now the day (light) draweth toward evening (sunset), I pray you tarry all night (night comes after sunset): behold, the day (light) groweth to an end (at sunset), lodge here, that thine heart may be merry; and to morrow (next day of light) get you early on your way, that thou mayest go home.

Mark 4:35 (King James Version)

35 And the same day, when the even was come, he saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other side. The words “same day and even” cannot be used this way if “even” starts a new day

John 20:19 (King James Version)

19 Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came The Messiah and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. The words “same day and evening” cannot be used this way if “evening” starts a new day.

Jonah 4:7 (New King James Version)

7 But as morning dawned the next day The Most High prepared a worm, and it so damaged the plant that it withered. The day starts in the morning at daybreak.

Exodus 18:13 [King James Version]

[13] And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening..

Leviticus 7:15 (King James Version)

15 And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksgiving shall be eaten the same day that it is offered; he shall not leave any of it until the morning.

Morning begins a new day; otherwise it would have said “none should be left until evening”, if evening begins the new day.

1 Samuel 19:11 (King James Version)

11 Saul also sent messengers unto David’s house, to watch him, and to slay him in the morning: and Michal David’s wife told him, saying, If thou save not thy life tonight, tomorrow thou shalt be slain. If the evening starts the day, tomorrow would be the following night and not the following morning.

Remember this verse

John 11:9 (King James Version)

9 The Messiah answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world.

Matthew 20:1-16 (King James Version)
The Master’s Vineyard

1 For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which went out early in the morning to hire labourers into his vineyard.
2 And when he had agreed with the labourers for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard.
3 And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace,
4 And said unto them; Go ye also into the vineyard, and whatsoever is right I will give you. And they went their way.
5 Again he went out about the sixth and ninth hour, and did likewise.
6 And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle, and saith unto them, Why stand ye here all the day idle?
7 They say unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He saith unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard; and whatsoever is right, that shall ye receive.
8 So when even was come (the 12th hour), the lord of the vineyard saith unto his steward, Call the labourers, and give them their hire, beginning from the last unto the first.
9 And when they came that were hired about the eleventh hour, they received every man a penny.
10 But when the first came, they supposed that they should have received more; and they likewise received every man a penny.
11 And when they had received it, they murmured against the goodman of the house,
12 Saying, These last have wrought but one hour (from the 11th hour until the 12th hour), and thou hast made them equal unto us, which have borne the burden and heat of the day.
13 But he answered one of them, and said, Friend, I do thee no wrong: didst not thou agree with me for a penny?
14 Take that thine is, and go thy way: I will give unto this last, even as unto thee.
15 Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? Is thine eye evil, because I am good?
16 So the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but few chosen.

Leviticus 23:26-32 (King James Version)
The Day of Atonement

This is the only place I have been able to find scripture that use “even to even”.

26 And YAH spake unto Moses, saying, 27 Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy (set-apart) convocation (gathering) unto you; and ye shall AFFLICT (H6031) your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto YHUH. 28 And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before YHUH your Elohim(Alahiym). 29 For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people. 30 And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people. 31 Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. 32 It shall be unto you a Sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate your Sabbath

The Day of Atonement is actually on the 10th day of the 7th month . Israel was to afflict (fast) their souls starting the 9th day at even until the even of the 10th day.

If we use the sunset to sunset scenario to observe The Day of Atonement starting at sunset on the 10th day and end the Day of Atonement at the following sunset, then what happens to afflicting our souls on the 9th day?


If we use the sunset to sunset scenario to observe The Day of Atonement starting at sunset on the 9th day and end the Day of Atonement at the following sunset, then what happens to afflicting our souls on the 10th day?


The only option in keeping a Sunset to Sunset Day of Atonement to be inclusive of both the 9th day and the 10th day would be a 48 hour Day of Atonement.

However, if we recognize that a day begins at sunrise and ends at sunset (evening), then the Day of Atonement would be a 24 hour period starting the evening of the 9th and ending the evening of the 10th day. PERFECT!


Genesis 19:23, 33-35 (King James Version)
Lot’s deliverance

23 The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot entered into Zoar. 33 And they made their father drink wine that night (after the day light, same 24 hour period): and the firstborn went in, and lay with her father; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose. 34 And it came to pass on the morrow (the next day of light), that the firstborn said unto the younger, Behold, I lay yesternight (last night; not yesterday) with my father: let us make him drink wine this night also; and go thou in, and lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father. 35 And they made their father drink wine that night also: and the younger arose, and lay with him; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose. See the progression from the day to night and the terminology used by Lot’s daughters to describe the event .

Disclaimer: Kingdom-info does not condone incest. Incest is a direct violation of the law of YAH (Torah) Leviticus 18:6-18.

Exodus 12:6-12 (King James Version)

6 And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day (light) of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening (sunset).
8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night (the 14th), roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
10 And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning (the 15th) ; and that which remained of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire.
11 And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the The LORD’s Passover.
12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.

The Day of Preparation Before The Feast of Unleavened Bread

Matthew 27:57-62
Mark 15:42-46
Luke 23:50-54
John 19:38-42

If you are reckoning time from sunset to sunset, it is very difficult to see the flow or harmony between the Torah (law) account of the Passover and the Gospel account of the Messiah Crucifixion on Passover.

Sequence of events:

1. Joseph of Arimathea prepared the body of The Messiah to be buried on the Preparation Day before the Holy Day.

2. John 19:31 (King James Version): The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

He knew that he had to get the body ready for burial as soon as possible on the preparation day (Passover) before the Feast of Unleavened Bread (The Holy Day). Joseph knew that the body of The Messiah could not be left hanging overnight according to the Law or Torah. Take a look at Deuteronomy 21:22-23 & Joshua 10:26-27 .

3. It was already ” between the evening” (from 3:00 pm to sunset toward the beginning of darkness or night) on the Day of Preparation (i.e. Wednesday evening) when Joseph requested permission from Pilate to take The Messiah’s body (See Matthew 27:57-58; Mark 15:42-43). .

4. Pilate sent a centurion to verify that The Messiah was dead (Mark 15:44-45).

5. Joseph purchased linen strips to wrap the body of The Messiah (Mark 15:46).

6. Joseph returned to the place of the crucifixion to take down the body (Mark 15:46, John 20:27).

7. Nicodemus shows up with approximately 100 pounds of myrrh and aloes to prep the body for burial (John. 19:39, 40).

8. The body of The Messiah was taken to the tomb and a stone was rolled in front of it (Mark. 15:46; John. 19:41).

Remember this: It was already between the evenings when Joseph got permission from Pilate to take the body.

By the time they got the body buried, it would have been at sunset going into the night and the Sabbath (which started the next morning) was drawing near (Luke 23:54).

Luke 23:54 (King James Version)
54 And that day was the preparation, and the Sabbath drew on.

Let’s look up the words “drew on” …

Exodus 16:1-26 (King James Version)

1 And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt.
2 And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness:
3 And the children of Israel said unto them, Would to Elohim we had died by the hand of YAH in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh pots, and when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger.
4 Then said YAH unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no.
5 And it shall come to pass, that on the sixth day they shall prepare that which they bring in; and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.
6 And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, At even, then ye shall know that YAH hath brought you out from the land of Egypt:
7 And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of YAH; for that he heareth your murmurings against YAH: and what are we, that ye murmur against us?
8 And Moses said, This shall be, when YAH shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that YAH heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against him: and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against YAH.
9 And Moses spake unto Aaron, Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, Come near before YAH: for he hath heard your murmurings.
10 And it came to pass, as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of YAH appeared in the cloud.
11 And YAH spake unto Moses, saying,
12 I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel: speak unto them, saying, At even ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled with bread
13 And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host.
14 And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground.
15 And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, It is manna: for they wist not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which YAH hath given you to eat.
16 This is the thing which YAH hath commanded, Gather of it every man according to his eating, an omer for every man, according to the number of your persons; take ye every man for them which are in his tents.
17 And the children of Israel did so, and gathered, some more, some less.
18 And when they did mete it with an omer, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating.
19 And Moses said, Let no man leave of it till the morning (the next day).
20 Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and
Moses was wroth with them.
21 And they gathered it every morning (the start of the day), every man according to his eating: and when the sun waxed hot, it melted.
22 And it came to pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses.
23 And he said unto them, This is that which YAH hath said, To morrow (the next morning or day or light) is the rest of the holy sabbath unto YAH: bake that which ye will bake to day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning (the start of the day).
24 And they laid it up till the morning (the start of the day), as Moses bade: and it did not stink, neither was there any worm therein.
25 And Moses said, Eat that to day (light); for to day is a
(light) unto YAH: to day ye shall not find it in the field.
26 Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day (light), which is the Sabbath; in it there shall be none.

Nehemiah 13:15-20 (King James Version)
Sabbath Violations

15 In those days saw I in Judah some treading wine presses on the Sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and lading asses; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all manner of burdens, which they brought into Jerusalem on the Sabbath day: and I testified against them in the day wherein they sold victuals.
16 There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, which brought fish, and all manner of ware, and sold on the Sabbath unto the children of Judah, and in Jerusalem.
17 Then I contended with the nobles of Judah, and said unto them, What evil thing is this that ye do, and profane the Sabbath day?
18 Did not your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil upon us, and upon this city? yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel by profaning the Sabbath.
19 And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the Sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the Sabbath: and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the Sabbath day. (If the Sabbath is from sunset to sunset, the phrase “began to be dark before the Sabbath” would not be necessary because it should already be the Sabbath. It is obvious that the Sabbath had not come yet and that the night before is not the Sabbath. The gates of Jerusalem were closed when it became dark according to Nehemiah 7:3. The Sabbath begins on the following morning or day.
20 So the merchants and sellers of all kind of ware lodged without Jerusalem once or twice. (Some translations use the word “spent the night” for the word lodged).
21 Then I testified against them, and said unto them, Why lodge ye about the wall? if ye do so again, I will lay hands on you. From that time forth came they no more on the Sabbath. (They came no more on the Sabbath to do what? To sell their merchandise)

Began to be dark in Nehemiah 13:19 is used by most but not all translations of the Bible. I have noticed that some translations use “began to shadow”. This is used by the Hebrew Interlinear Bible.

New International Version Nehemiah 13:19 as:
When evening shadows (meaning sunset) fell on the gates of Jerusalem before the Sabbath, I ordered the doors to be shut and not opened until the Sabbath was over. I stationed some of my own men at the gates so that no load could be brought in on the Sabbath day.

If you are doing your Sabbath from sunset to sunset, then “before the sabbath” in this verse means the going down of the sun into the night.

In a sunrise to sunset reckoning of the Sabbath, “before the Sabbath” means” rising of the sun on the next day (light)

Let’s look up the words “Began to be dark” is Strong’s H6751 – tsalal. This word has the following meaning …

1) to be or become or grow dark

a) (Qal) to become or grow dark

b) (Hiphil) to shadow

This word comes from a primitive word Strong’s # H6749 – tsalal which means 1) (Qal) to sink, be submerged

Gesenius’s Lexicon states that the word means to be shaded or dusky.

When I looked at the Hebrew word, it does not have the Hiphil stem attached to it. The Hebrew Hiphil Stem would cause the word to mean “To Shadow”. Therefore the meaning of the word is (QAL) “to began to be dark”.

No matter how you translate it, it has something to do with shadows and growing dark. Since there are no shadows after sunset, the verse would have to be speaking of a time prior to sunset. Long shadows are a characteristic of the time just before sunset.

Let’s say that Nehemiah closed the gates just before sundown, what would have been the purpose? Obviously, it was “before the Sabbath” which would start the next day. Nehemiah did not want people bringing in and carrying burdens into Jerusalem to sell on the “Sabbath day” so he had the gates shut to prevent that in verse 19. The word day carries the meaning “heat of the day” from its hebrew root word.

To shadow, when does that occur? Right after the sun has reached its highest point in the sky as it descends into a sunset.

If he shut the gates at sundown, someone could have come in just before sundown. It was the intent of the merchants to bring their merchandise into Jerusalem to set up and sell on the Sabbath, but notice the use of the words “Sabbath Day” in Nehemiah 9:19 & 22.

Nehemiah 7:3 tells us that the gates were usually closed at night. This was an ongoing event every night. Therefore, Nehemiah closed the gates during the day (6th day) before sunset and the gates were not opened until after the Sabbath Day.

Nehemiah 7 (New King James Version)

[1] Then it was, when the wall was built and I had hung the doors, when the gatekeepers, the singers, and the Levites had been appointed, [2] that I gave the charge of Jerusalem to my brother Hanani, and Hananiah the leader of the citadel, for he was a faithful man and feared Elohim more than many.
[3] And I said to them, “Do not let the gates of Jerusalem be opened until the sun is hot; and while they stand guard, let them shut and bar the doors; and appoint guards from among the inhabitants of Jerusalem, one at his watch station and another in front of his own house.”

Pay attention to this. From Genesis 1: day = light and night = darkness. The Most High said that light is called day, but man says, “No … the night is the day starting at sunset”.

The merchants could not get into the gates, so they spent the night outside the gates in hopes of getting into Jerusalem on the Sabbath Day.

Nehemiah put his guards at the gates and then the Levites were put on the gates on The Sabbath Day. Why would Nehemiah put guards on the gates when they were already assigned to keep the gates at night. Ah-Ha! They were to guard the gates during the day (6th Day) when the gates were normally open.

We would be assuming if we said that the Sabbath begins at sunset going into the night in light of all evidence presented in scripture and in nature.

Based upon the definition of the words and its root meaning, the message in Nehemiah 13:19 supports a sunrise to sunset Sabbath.

Genesis 2:1-3 (King James Version)
About The Sabbath

1 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.
2 And on the seventh day Elohim ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.
3 And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and
made. (What happened to “and the evening and the morning” the 7th Day? You do not see it because the Creator was making a point. The Sabbath is literally the 7th day (light) from morning to evening in the heat of the day).

I have already done the search or research and I have not discovered any mention of a “Sabbath Night “in the Bible. I challenge you to do the same.

Matthew 15:9 (King James Version)

[9] But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.
(The Doctrine of Men: Keeping the Sabbath on the 6th night and the 7th day)

Mark 16:1 (King James Version)

1 And when the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him
2 And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.

If the Sabbath was from sunrise to sunrise, then they could not have bought spices between the end of the Sabbath and the rising of the sun. Why? Because they could not buy or sell on the Sabbath because that would be profaning the Sabbath. Here is another verse from three different versions of the Bible that would further illustrate this point.

Matthew 28:1 (King James Version)

1 In the end of the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre

Matthew 28:1 (Young’s Literal Translation)

1 And on the eve of the Sabbaths, at the dawn, toward the first of the Sabbaths, came Mary the Magdalene, and the other Mary, to see the sepulchre,

Let’s look up the Greek words for (“in the end of the Sabbath”)

Let’s also look up “begin to dawn”

The Sabbath ended at evening. The night followed the Sabbath. After that, we see the growing of light as the first [day] of the week started that morning (daybreak).

We see the same in Luke 23:54 “That day was the Preparation, and the Sabbath drew near (to grow light). The Greek word is the same as in Matthew 28:1 from strong’s G2020 meaning “to Grow Light”.

Understanding Acts 27:27-35

Some use this text to validate an evening to evening reckoning of a day, but is this really proof in light of what we already know?

Acts 27:27 & Acts 27:34 are talking about two different events.

#1. 14th night at sea
#2. 14th day of going without food

If Paul had said in verse 27 that “when the 14th night of fasting without food had come while in the Adria Sea”, then there would be a valid case for a day starting at even and ending at even.

27 But when the fourteenth night was come, as we were driven up and down in Adria, about midnight the shipmen deemed that they drew near to some country; (This was the 14th night at sea)

28 And sounded, and found it twenty fathoms: and when they had gone a little further, they sounded again, and found it fifteen fathoms.

29 Then fearing lest we should have fallen upon rocks, they cast four anchors out of the stern, and wished for the day.

30 And as the shipmen were about to flee out of the ship, when they had let down the boat into the sea, under colour as though they would have cast anchors out of the foreship,

31 Paul said to the centurion and to the soldiers, Except these abide in the ship, ye cannot be saved.

32 Then the soldiers cut off the ropes of the boat, and let her fall off.

33 And while the day (light) was coming on, Paul besought them all to take meat, saying, This day is the fourteenth day that ye have tarried and continued fasting, having taken nothing. (This day is the fourteenth day of fasting)

Joshua 6 (King James Version)
The Day is The Light. A day is 12 hours and not 24 hours

[1] Now Jericho was straitly shut up because of the children of Israel: none went out, and none came in. [2] And YAH said unto Joshua, See, I have given into thine hand Jericho, and the king thereof, and the mighty men of valour. [3] And ye shall compass the city, all ye men of war, and go round about the city once. Thus shalt thou do six days. [4] And seven priests shall bear before the ark seven trumpets of rams’ horns: and the seventh day ye shall compass the city seven times, and the priests shall blow with the trumpets.

Moving to verse 12…

[12] And Joshua rose early in the morning, and the priests took up the ark of YAH. [13] And seven priests bearing seven trumpets of rams’ horns before the ark of YAH went on continually, and blew with the trumpets: and the armed men went before them; but the rereward came after the ark of YAH, the priests going on, and blowing with the trumpets. [14] And the second day they compassed the city once, and returned into the camp: so they did six days. [15] And it came to pass on the seventh day, that they rose early about the dawning of the day, and compassed the city after the same manner seven times: only on that day. they compassed the city seven times. [16] And it came to pass at the seventh time, when the priests blew with the trumpets, Joshua said unto the people, Shout; for YAH hath given you the city.

1 Samuel 20 (King James Version)
David & Jonathan

5 And David said unto Jonathan, Behold, to morrow is the new moon (new month or new month day), and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field unto the third day at even.

The translators decided to use the word “new moon” instead of new month or new month day. When David said tomorrow is the new moon, it had to have been during the day portion of a 24 hour period because he makes reference to “tomorrow” which would be the next day or next light.

We will see why “new month” or “new moon day” would have been a better translation later. 1 Samuel 20:5 tells us that tomorrow is the next day.

18 Then Jonathan said to David, To morrow is the new moon: and thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty.

19 And when thou hast stayed three days, then thou shalt go down quickly, and come to the place where thou didst hide thyself when the business was in hand, and shalt remain by the stone Ezel. Three days concluded at even on the third day as stated in verse 5

20 And I will shoot three arrows on the side thereof, as though I shot at a mark.

21 And, behold, I will send a lad, saying, Go, find out the arrows. If I expressly say unto the lad, Behold, the arrows are on this side of thee, take them; then come thou: for there is peace to thee, and no hurt; as YAH liveth.

22 But if I say thus unto the young man, Behold, the arrows are beyond thee; go thy way: for YAH hath sent thee away.

23 And as touching the matter which thou and I have spoken of, behold, YAH be between thee and me for ever.

24 So David hid himself in the field: and when the new moon (new moon day or new month) was come, the king sat him down to eat meat.

25 And the king sat upon his seat, as at other times, even upon a seat by the wall: and Jonathan arose, and Abner sat by Saul’s side, and David’s place was empty.

26 Nevertheless Saul spake not any thing that day: for he thought, Something hath befallen him, he is not clean; surely he is not clean. Saul didn’t speak that day. The Hebrew word for “day” comes from a root word meaning “the heat of the day”.

27 And it came to pass on the morrow, which was the second day of the month, that David’s place was empty: and Saul said unto Jonathan his son, Wherefore cometh not the son of Jesse to meat, neither yesterday, nor to day? Notice that the translators used the word “month” here but they did not use new moon as in verse 5. It is now the second day of the month which means that yesterday was the 1st day of the month also called the new month or new moon day.

28 And Jonathan answered Saul, David earnestly asked leave of me to go to Bethlehem:

29 And he said, Let me go, I pray thee; for our family hath a sacrifice in the city; and my brother, he hath commanded me to be there: and now, if I have found favour in thine eyes, let me get away, I pray thee, and see my brethren. Therefore he cometh not unto the king’s table.

30 Then Saul’s anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said unto him, Thou son of the perverse rebellious woman, do not I know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own confusion, and unto the confusion of thy mother’s nakedness?

31 For as long as the son of Jesse liveth upon the ground, thou shalt not be established, nor thy kingdom. Wherefore now send and fetch him unto me, for he shall surely die.

32 And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said unto him, Wherefore shall he be slain? what hath he done?

33 And Saul cast a javelin at him to smite him: whereby Jonathan knew that it was determined of his father to slay David.

34 So Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and did eat no meat the second day of the month: for he was grieved for David, because his father had done him shame.

35 And it came to pass in the morning (the morning started the day which was the third day), that Jonathan went out into the field at the time appointed (the third day) with David, and a little lad with him. Remember that David said he would hide until the 3rd day at even, but Jonathan came in the morning on the third day.

36 And he said unto his lad, Run, find out now the arrows which I shoot. And as the lad ran, he shot an arrow beyond him.

37 And when the lad was come to the place of the arrow which Jonathan had shot, Jonathan cried after the lad, and said, Is not the arrow beyond thee?

38 And Jonathan cried after the lad, Make speed, haste, stay not. And Jonathan’s lad gathered up the arrows, and came to his master.

39 But the lad knew not any thing: only Jonathan and David knew the matter.

40 And Jonathan gave his artillery unto his lad, and said unto him, Go, carry them to the city.

41 And as soon as the lad was gone, David arose out of a place toward the south, and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed himself three times: and they kissed one another, and wept one with another, until David exceeded.

42 And Jonathan said to David, Go in peace, forasmuch as we have sworn both of us in the name of the LORD, saying, The LORD be between me and thee, and between my seed and thy seed for ever. And he arose and departed: and Jonathan went into the city.

New Moon should have been translated New Month Day. Tomorrow is the next day or light and not the night. Jonathan went at the appointed time to meet David on the third day in the morning. Pay attention to the sequence. David knew that tomorrow was the next day and the new moon day. The three days started with the new moon day and ended at the third day at even but Jonathan came in the morning of the third day.

2 Kings 7
The Syrians Flee

3 Now there were four leprous men at the entrance of the gate; and they said to one another, “Why are we sitting here until we die?

4 If we say, ‘We will enter the city,’ the famine is in the city, and we shall die there. And if we sit here, we die also. Now therefore, come, let us surrender to the army of the Syrians. If they keep us alive, we shall live; and if they kill us, we shall only die.”

5 And they rose at twilight to go to the camp of the Syrians; and when they had come to the outskirts of the Syrian camp, to their surprise no one was there.

What is definition of the word twilight?

Twilight can be in the evening as well as in the morning!

6 For YAH had caused the army of the Syrians to hear the noise of chariots and the noise of horses—the noise of a great army; so they said to one another, “Look, the king of Israel has hired against us the kings of the Hittites and the kings of the Egyptians to attack us!”

7 Therefore they arose and fled at twilight, and left the camp intact—their tents, their horses, and their donkeys—and they fled for their lives.

8 And when these lepers came to the outskirts of the camp, they went into one tent and ate and drank, and carried from it silver and gold and clothing, and went and hid them; then they came back and entered another tent, and carried some from there also, and went and hid it.

9 Then they said to one another, “We are not doing right. This day (Hebrew word “yom” meaning day, daylight or in the heat of the day) is a day of good news, and we remain silent. If we wait until morning light (the next day) , some punishment will come upon us. Now therefore, come, let us go and tell the king’s household.” The lepers did what they did during the daylight. It is an assumption if we think that they did what they did at night. The word “day” is key in this verse.

10 So they went and called to the gatekeepers of the city, and told them, saying, “We went to the Syrian camp, and surprisingly no one was there, not a human sound—only horses and donkeys tied, and the tents intact.”

11 And the gatekeepers called out, and they told it to the king’s household inside.

12 So the king arose in the night and said to his servants, “Let me now tell you what the Syrians have done to us. They know that we are hungry; therefore they have gone out of the camp to hide themselves in the field, saying, ‘When they come out of the city, we shall catch them alive, and get into the city.’”

Judges 16:1-2
Then went Samson to Gaza, and saw there an harlot, and went in unto her. 2 And it was told the Gazites, saying, Samson is come hither. And they compassed him in, and laid wait for him all night in the gate of the city, and were quiet all the night, saying, In the morning, when it is day, we shall kill him.

Abraham: The Smoking Furnace & the Burning Lamp

Does this passage of Scripture (Genesis 15:12-18) defines the beginning of a day at sunset?

On the surface, this passage of Scripture can be used to support both an “evening to evening” as well as a “sunrise to sunset” rendering of a day.

12 And when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and, lo, a horror of great darkness fell upon him. 13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years; 14 And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance. 15 And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age. 16 But in the fourth generation they shall come hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full. 17 And it came to pass, that, when the sun went down, and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp that passed between those pieces. 18 In the same day YHUH made a covenant with Abram, saying, unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates:

Let us look a little closer

In verse 18, the word “same” was added by the translators to make the verse flow better in English. This is not in the Hebrew text from which the KJV was translated. Read this verse again without the word “same” in it. It makes a difference.

12-26-2013 6-25-12 AM

Genesis 15:18 (Revised): In day YHUH made a covenant with Abram, saying, unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates …

Now we see that the passage is talking about the light portion or day of a 24 hour period.

Back to Genesis 1:5, light is called day. This passage, Genesis 15:18, is either talking about the daylight before the Smoking Furnace and the Burning Lamp appearance at night, or it is talking about the daylight after.


The Sabbath Day (7th Day) should be celebrated from sunrise to sunset. An “even to even” scenario does not fit with events that happened in the Bible no matter how you try to fit it. If the day begins at sunset, wouldn’t that be like saying light equals darkness? Friday night is the 6th night and not the 7th day.

Hebrew words often carry multiple meanings for one word. The word day (yowm) has this same meaning. The context determines whether or not the day is a 24 hour period (day and night) or just the light portion called the day.

Leviticus 8:35 (King James Version)

35 Therefore shall ye abide at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation day and night seven days, and keep the charge of the LORD, that ye die not: for so I am commanded.

Esther 4:16 (King James Version)

16 Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day: I also and my maidens will fast likewise; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law: and if I perish, I perish.

Leviticus 15

16 And if any man’s seed of copulation go out from him, then he shall wash all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even.

17 And every garment, and every skin, whereon is the seed of copulation, shall be washed with water, and be unclean until the even.

18 The woman also with whom man shall lie with seed of copulation, they shall both bathe themselves in water, and be unclean until the even.

28 But if she be cleansed of her issue, then she shall number to herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean.

29 And on the eighth day she shall take unto her two turtles, or two young pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

The 7 days of a woman’s separation in Leviticus 15 consist of both the day and night in which we call a 24 hour period. She becomes clean after 7 days. She had to appear before the priest on the 8th day for atonement.

Key point: YAH says that 6 days you shall labor, but the seventh day is a day of rest. If he wanted to include the night with that, he would have said 6 days and 6 nights.

During the days of antiquity, people ceased working at night and slept. In modern times, we have electricity, open stores, and other things to allow us to work during night.

Ceasing work on the 7th day sets us apart from the rest of the world that continues to work during that time.

Barnes’ Notes on the Bible (commentary on Acts 2:15) states…
“For these are not drunken … – The word these here includes Peter himself, as well as the others. The charge doubtless extended to all. The third hour of the day – The Jews divided their day into twelve equal parts, reckoning from sunrise to sunset. Of course the hours were longer in summer than in winter. The third hour would correspond to our nine o’clock in the morning” (end).

Both of the expressions “the evening and the morning” and “the morning and the evening” can be found in the Bible.

The phrase “the evening and the morning”, (and similar expressions) occurs in Genesis. 1:5,8,13,19, 23, 31; Exodus 27:21; Leviticus 24:3; Numbers 9:21; Psalms 55:17 and Daniel 8:14,26.

The phrase “the morning and the evening”, (or similar expressions) occurs in Exodus 18:13,14; 1 Samuel 17:16; 1 Chronicles 16:40; 2 Chronicles 2:4; 2 Chronicles 13:11; 2 Chronicles 31:3; Ezra 3:3; Job 4:20; Psalms 65:8; Isaiah 21:12; Isaiah 28:19; and Acts 28:23.

Both of the expressions “night and day” and “day and night” can be found in the Bible.

The phrase, “night and day”, (and similar expressions) occurs in 1 Samuel. 25:16; 1 Kings. 8:29; Esther. 4:16; Psalms 19:2; Psalms 91:5; Isaiah 27:3; Isaiah 34:10; Jeremiah 14:17; Mark. 4:27; Mark 5:5; Luke 2:37; Acts 20:31; Acts 26:7; 2 Corinthians. 11:25; 1 Thessalonians. 2:9; 1 Thessalonians. 3:10; 2 Thessalonians. 3:8; 1 Timothy 5:5; 2 Timothy 1:3.

The phrase, “day and night”, (or similar expressions) occurs in Genesis 1:18; Genesis 7:4; Genesis 8:22; Genesis 31:39,40; Exodus 10:13; Exodus 13:21,22; Exodus 24:18; Exodus 34:28; Leviticus 8:35; Numbers 9:21; Deuteronomy 9:9,11,18,25; Deuteronomy 10:10; Deuteronomy 28:66; Joshua 1:8; 1 Samuel 30:12; 2 Samuel 21:10; 1 Kings 8:59; 1 Kings 19:8; 1 Chronicles 9:33; 2 Chronicles. 6:20; Nehemiah 1:6; Nehemiah 4:9; Nehemiah 9:12,19; Job 2:13; Psalms 1:2; Psalms 32:4; Psalms 42:3; Psalms 55:10; Psalms 74:16; Psalms 88:1; Psalms 121:6; Psalms 136:8-9; Ecclesiastes 8:16; Isaiah 28:19; Isaiah 38:12,13; Isaiah 60:11; Isaiah 62:6; Jeremiah 9:1; Jeremiah 16:13; Jeremiah 33:20,25; Lamentations 2:18; Jonah 1:17; Zechariah 14:7; Matthew 4:2; Luke 18:7; Acts 9:24; Revelations 4:8; Revelations 7:15; Revelations 12:10; Revelations 14:11; Revelations 20:10.

Job 17:12

They change the night into day: the light [is] short because of darkness

Jeremiah 33:19-21

[19] And the word of YAH came unto Jeremiah, saying, [20] Thus saith YAH; If ye can break my covenant of the day, and my covenant of the night, and that there should not be day and night in their season (time); [21] Then may also my covenant be broken with David my servant, that he should not have a son to reign upon his throne; and with the Levites the priests, my ministers.

1 Thessalonians 5 (New King James Version)

[4] But you, brethren, are not in darkness, so that this Day should overtake you as a thief. [5] You are all sons of light and sons of the day. We are not of the night nor of darkness. [6] Therefore let us not sleep, as others do, but let us watch and be sober. [7] For those who sleep, sleep at night, and those who get drunk are drunk at night. [8] But let us who are of the day be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love, and as a helmet the hope of salvation. [9] For YAH did not appoint us to wrath, but to obtain salvation through Yahusha The Messiah [10] who died for us, that whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with Him. [11] Therefore comfort each other and edify one another, just as you also are doing.

What Calendar Did Yahushua Keep?

What Calendar Did Yahushua Keep

What Calendar Did Yahushua Keep – Whose Report Will We Believe?


Original article on: What Calendar Did Yahushua Keep

This paper demonstrates how astronomical, historical and biblical evidence directly points to Yahushua’s Passover meal as described in Mark 14:12-26 as being:

1) a most significant lawful Passover and not a “last supper”,

2) that Yahushua’s very timing of His Passover meal speaks loudly concerning the biblical calendar He is observing,

3) that 30 CE is the only year where the astronomical events are closely associated to permit precisely 1 day difference between Yahushua’s Passover and the Temple’s calendar for the Passover,

4) that 30 CE is the only year where the timing of the proper astronomical events of the year permit the fulfillment of Yahushua’s sign of three days and three nights, and

5) the timing of the astronomical events occurring in that year, together with the biblical account of Yahushua’s behaviour reveal that the first sliver new moon was not observed by the Temple calendar in the year of His suffering.

The issue of the biblical calendar is not simply a central issue of passion to messianics but, at its highest level it is at the heart of all institutionalized religions of the so-called “Abrahamic faiths”, and as such the most significant theological issue second only to the deity of Yahushua Messiah.

The Main Religions Avoid The Equinox From The Calculations Of Their Calendars

Historical Christianity determines their appointed weekly day of worship as Sunday, having replaced the Sabbath, and their date of Easter in their calendar is determined by the first Sunday which occurs after the first full moon after the vernal equinox. The modern Christian calendar, based on the Roman Gregorian calendar, adjusts itself back to the vernal equinox with a leap month day every 4th year.

In the Rabbinical Jewish calendar the determination of the beginning of the year is on the first conjunctive moon closest to the vernal equinox, thereafter counting conjunctive new moons, with a 13th month periodically implemented to readjust to the calendar back to a close alignment with the vernal equinox when it drifts out some, three weeks or more.

In the Karaite calendar, there is no acknowledgement of the vernal equinox, and the calendar is determined by the visual sighting of the first “sliver” of the new moon after the identification of the “aviv’ condition of the wild barely growing in and around Jerusalem. Again, a 13th month is kept periodically to re-adjust the drift of the calendar back to the times of the vernal equinox, given that the “aviv” condition of the Barley is reached through as a biological response to the ratio of hours of sunlight and darkness – although they will not concur with that assessment.

It is interesting to note that all three religious calendars purposely avoid the significance of the vernal equinox as being directly significant to the anchor leap year adjustments of their calendars and all then proceed to differently define the various conditions of the moon to determine the beginning of the months and the appointed times of worship. To be noted is that all three of these calendars practice leap year adjustments, which tacitly means that in the final analysis their calendars are steadily drifting out of alignment of the equinox all the time and need to be readjusted from becoming totally out of season.

The issue at its core is that the Rabbinical and Karaite lunar year calendars can range from approximately 354 days through to 383 days (when a leap month is intercalated), whereas the physical astronomical year (one full 360 degree circuit around the sun) takes 365.242 days.

Some have written me to say that today the average person cannot pinpoint the equinox, therefore how could the ancients have had this ability to have knowledge of the astronomical year and the identification of equinoxes, yet archeology of the ancients bears a different testimony – for instance the mathematics of the great pyramid of Egypt presents a precise witness of the exact measure of 365.242 days in the astronomical year, and certain passages point a line precisely to the star Alcyone of the Pleiades cluster, identifying the precise time of the autumnal equinox in the year of 2144 BC.

How is it that modern archeological evidence reveal the ancients circumnavigated the world far more than modern academia understood, yet in the Hereford Cathedral of England there exists a world map from the 1300’s that shows the known world as flat and consisting of the Mediterranean and the lands of known Roman Empire, surround by a circular ocean, after which one would fall off the earth? The fact is the effects of the darkness of the dark ages that was brought about by Roman Christendom (Edom), are vastly still underestimated.

Not only that, but in more recent history, archeological artifacts from the dead sea scrolls recently released (after many decades of secrecy) indicate that the citizens of Judea in the time of Yahushua Messiah were able to identify the equinox by the use of small portable clay tablet instrument.

The predominant viewpoint of lunar-calendar Messianics today, is that the equinox was simply far too complex for ordinary ancient people to know or identify (a perception possibly influenced by the experience that today it is a fact that the common person has absolutely no knowledge of the heavenly luminaries and no expertise as to identifying the equinoxes), and thus deductively the argument follows that the plain sighting of either the conjunctive moon (Rabbinical Judaism) or sliver moon (Karaite Judaism) is the obvious identification of the beginning of the months and the beginning of the years, thus the lunar conjunction/first sliver is argued to be the authentic calendar rather than that based on the equinox. The plain subjective experience of the condition of the moon then provides first hand support to various theological treatises.

However, in amongst the antiquities discovered in the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran was found a small clay tablet instrument, which Archaeologists have determined that this Qumran Sundial was used for the purpose of determining the Spring “tekufah” (circuit of the sun, the vernal equinox). From the picture below, it can be seen that this was a small portable clay instrument, which would have been clearly within the reach of common people and farmers.

What Calendar Did Yahushua Keep

The above picture “An Astronomical Measuring Instrument from Qumran” is from :http://www.lightedway.org/year.html

What Did Yahushua Teach On The Subject?

In the New Testament scriptures there appears no straight forward easily understood clear plain teaching by Yahushua Messiah on this subject of calculation of the biblical calendar.

This has had a significant impact by leaving a large degree of room for the Christian traditions to form their own opinions. From the Historical Christian tradition, the theological position has been that whilst the Gospels accounts clearly testify of Yahushua and His Apostles arranged and had a Passover on the night before He was crucified, this was not in fact a authentic legal Passover but could only therefore be a last supper, since the Passover offering at the Temple – which held the authentic authority over the biblical calendar – had yet to happen the next day, when the Messiah would be hung on the tree. Thus to many the 14th of Nisan was marked the next day with Yahushua’s crucifixion along with the sacrifice of the lamb in the Temple, with the feast of Unleavened bread (15th Nisan) yet to commence that evening.

This issue of avoiding the equinox was also well considered in early protestant evangelical theology as we can see from the writings of Newton, who when publishing his calculation of the year of the crucifixion of Messiah as being 33 or 34 CE stated:

“Computing therefore the new moons of the first month according to the course of the moon and the rule Jah, and thence counting 14 days, I find that the 14th day of this month in the year of Christ 31, fell on tuesday March 27; in the year 32, on sunday Apr. 13; in the year 33, on friday Apr. 3; in the year 34, on wednesday March 24, or rather, for avoiding the Equinox which fell on the same day, and for having a fitter time for harvest, on thursday Apr. 22,”

In this case Newton was referring to the “New Moons” as the conjunction moon, rather than the sliver moon, and he noted that when the conjunction fell on the day of the equinox – that day was to be avoided from any counting of the appointed times.

Why would Newton state that the day on which the equinox falls should be isolated from the counting to identify the date of crucifixion? He did so because he understood that this was the practice in place in the establishment of the calendar that in operation by the Temple, in the day of Yahushua Messiah.

It must also be noted, that not only do the Sadducee/ Pharisee/ Rabbinical Jews isolate the equinox from their count of their calendar, but so also do the modern Karaite Jews in their counting of the “sliver” new moon, although the Karaite’s differ in that rather than following the conjunctive moon they substitute the equinox for the sighting of a condition of the barley and then focus on the sighted first sliver moon. In addition, it should also be noted that historical Christendom also avoids the equinox by identifying the first Sunday after the first full moon after the equinox for its declaration of the day of its Easter celebration.

But What Calendar Did Yahushua Messiah Observe?

This is now a very significant question and brings us back to a careful and detailed consideration of the witness account of Yahushua’s preparations and Passover account as witnessed by the Apostles. In Mark’s Gospel, there are significant details that need to be re-examined as they give evidence to the biblical calendar that Yahushua observed in the year of His crucifixion.

Mark 14: 12 ¶ And the first (Strongs 4413 – “protos” meaning “before) day of unleavened bread, when they killed the passover, his disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that thou mayest eat the passover?

13 And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, and saith unto them, Go ye into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water: follow him.

14 And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the goodman of the house, The Master saith, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?

15 And he will shew you a large upper room furnished and prepared: there make ready for us.

16 And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.

17 And in the evening he cometh with the twelve.

18 And as they sat and did eat, Yahushua said, Verily I say unto you, One of you which eateth with me shall betray me.

19 And they began to be sorrowful, and to say unto him one by one, Is it I? and another said, Is it I?

20 And he answered and said unto them, It is one of the twelve, that dippeth with me in the dish.

21 The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! good were it for that man if he had never been born.

22 And as they did eat, Yahushua took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body.

23 And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them: and they all drank of it.

24 And he said unto them, This is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many.

25 Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God.

26 And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives.



We note that:

  • It was the day before the feast of Unleavened Bread according to the Apostles account, yet the day before the Feast of Unleavened Bread as defined by the current temple practice was the next day, when Yahushua would be crucified
  • Two disciples were sent to find a man carrying a water pitcher
  • They would follow that man to his quarters for Yahushua’s Passover.
  • Yahushua called this man ‘the good man”
  • That the disciples must tell him that Yahushua would keep His Passover/Unleavened Bread (not a last supper) that night in the man’s guest upper room
  • That neither the Apostles nor the “Goodman” showed any protest in anyway that this was the incorrect day for the Passover preparation for Unleavened Bread to be held, or that this was unlawful according to the law of Moses, or that they should rather only be doing this the following day, as was the recorded institutional religious practices of the Temple at that time where the Temple’s Passover Day of Preparation (Nisan 14) was the very next day.
The Identity of the “Good Man” who was Carrying The Water Pitcher

Many bible scholars have identified this “Goodman” man who was carrying the water pitcher as being an Essene. In both Mark 14:13 and Luke 22:10, Yahushua commanded two Apostles to “follow a man bearing a pitcher of water”. It is known that men in the 1st Century Judah did not carry water. Only women or slaves carried water in Judea. The Essenes carried their jars of water because of their personal practices of ceremonial washing.

Josephus presents a detailed account of the Essenes in The Jewish War (75 CE), with a shorter description in Antiquities of the Jews (94 CE) and The Life of Flavius Josephus (97 CE). Josephus claimed firsthand knowledge of the Essenes and he described the “Essenoi” as one of the dominant religious sects of Jewish philosophy alongside the Pharisees and the Sadducees.

Josephus stated that the Essenes lived in communities within the cities in Judea and lived lives of piety, with some observing celibacy, the absence of personal property and of money, the belief in communality and commitment to a strict observance of Sabbath.

Josephus also stated that the Essenes ritually immersed in water every morning, ate together after prayer, devoted themselves to charity and benevolence, forbade the expression of anger, studied the books of the elders, preserved secrets, and were very mindful of the names of the angels kept in their sacred writings.

From the evidence of the Dead Sea scrolls that has been permitted to be made public, other scholars have noted that the Essenses were in fact reflecting much of the tribal communities of the Levites in the cities of Judah, who had exiled themselves from participation of the rites of the Temple in those times because they viewed the Temple as having been taken over by unauthorized leadership and corrupted in its calendar practices. We know however that John the Baptist’s father, Zechariah undertook his course of duty at the Temple in the time around John’s birth so we know that not all Levites had exiled themselves from participation in the Temple even though it had been captured by a biblically unauthorized leadership.

We also know that in the time of Yahushua, the Temple was dominated by the sect known as the Sadducees, who were not the Levites, but wealthy Hasmonean aristocrats that had taken power over the Temple after the time of the Maccabees. We also know that the positions of the priesthood in the Temple in the day of Yahushua, such as Caiaphas the High Priest, were political appointees by the ruling Edomites, such as Herod, and later by the Romans.

Some biblical scholars point to John the Baptist as being qualified as the rightful high priest who should have been in position in the Temple in the day of Yahushua, because he was a direct descendant of the line of Aaron.

Also to be noted is that the Essenes took specific issue with the Temple priesthood hierarchy stating that they were falsely claiming themselves to be the descendants of the Zaddock priestly line.

The Essenes Were A Significantly Large Constituency of People in Judea

It appears that the Essenes were not simply a small group of people in a few isolated communities in Judea as historical Christendom would like to have us believe. According to Josephus, the Essenes were “not in one city” but “in large numbers in every town” (Josephus, The Wars of the Jews. vol 2; p. 124). The Roman philosopher Philo also made similar mention of “more than four thousand” Essaioi living in “Palestine and Syria”, “in many cities of Judaea and in many villages and grouped in great societies of many members.

Consequently the whole population of Judea would have known who the Essenes were, what they believed and what they practiced. Interestingly there was no sign of the common people wanting to rid themselves of the Essenes which would have happened if they were breaking the law of Moses, or if they were the mystical “Gnostics” that Historical Christianity would have us believe.

One perspective on the formation of the Essenes was that they were founded by a Jewish high priest, dubbed by the Essenes the Teacher of Righteousness, whose office had been usurped by one Jonathan (of a priestly but not Zadokite lineage), labeled the “man of lies” or the false priest”.

This points to other historical information confirming that the Levites in the Second temple had been largely usurped sometime after the Maccabean revolt, when the Hasmoneans (an aristocratic wealthy class of Jews who emerge after the great Maccabean wars) and politically claimed the offices of the high / senior priesthood as part of the spoils of war in driving out the Seleucids.

Apparently, there was argument that arose that the Maccabees couldn’t be priests because they didn’t come from the Levites, but that consequently the Levites were pushed aside to a junior position and this take over and oppression of the Levites in the Temple resulted, with the emergence of a foreign priesthood class not qualified by the Law of Moses resulted in many (but not all) of the Levites rejecting the Temple and remaining in communities within their cities which came to be known as the Essenes. This separation was further promoted because the Essenes honoured a biblical calendar which was different to the ruling Hasmonean priesthood, resulting in the keeping of different appointed times of worship. However the Essenes apparently still continued to honour the Temple itself in their taking up of their offerings. Having exiled themselves from the Temple, the Essenes worked mainly as farmers and shepherds in the cities of Judeah and made farm tools or household articles.

There is much that intrigues about the practices of the Essenes, since those who have studied them report that they followed a way of life that closely resembled the early messianic congregations of the Book of Acts. Some mention that the Essenes did not appear to present their sacrifices at the Temple on the days of the Temple calendar, because they believed the Temple calendar was incorrect and the appointed times profaned. However they apparently did present their offerings to the Temple revealing that they revered the geographical place of YHVH’s Name rather than the profaned institution. The Essenes reveal that in the day of Yahushua, a radical challenge to the corrupt political hegemony of the Temple was already in existence.

The Essenes Kept a Different Biblical Calendar

The Dead sea scrolls give evidence that the Essenes observed the equinox and the earth’s solar circuit of the sun as the foundational count of the annual biblical calendar and the calculation of months and that they gave no acknowledgement whatsoever to the new moon lunar conjunctions or sighted slivers for the calculation of the months, nor did they observe the condition of the Aviv barley as espoused by contemporary Karaites. In the Essenes’ “Book of Jubilees”, also found in the Dead Sea Scrolls, the practises of the lunar calendar by those who were in control of the temple is described in this way:

6:34. And there will be those who will make observations of the moon, for this one (the moon) corrupts the stated times and comes out earlier each year by ten days. (35) And in this way they will corrupt the years and will observe a wrong day as the day of testimony and a corrupted festival day, and every one will mix holy days with unclean ones and unclean with holy; for they will err as to months and sabbaths and festivals and jubilees.

From the Dead Sea Scrolls, we find that the Essenes revered the Book of Jubilees and considered it an authoritative text. The injunction of Jubilees 6:34 explains much as to why the Essenes, being the tribal Levitical priesthood who had been superseded and then subsequently chose exile themselves from their office and function of a corrupted Temple priesthood, refused to bring sacrifices up to the Temple on the days of religious calendar days that the Temple practiced.

Further historical evidence of this usurping of the Levitical priesthood is confirmed to us in the in the gospel accounts, that the Temple was controlled by the Hasmonean Sadducees and Caiaphas in Yahushua’s day, as described. With the political hegemony that the Sadducees and Pharisees held over the Temple in an alliance with the infiltration of Edomites who eventually ruled the Jews through Herod, it is not difficult to understand why both John The Baptist and Yahsuhau Messiah would ultimately be killed, because they would have both been highly regarded by the Essenes and the common people as front line leaders of the way of Moses.

Christian Theologians across the board have collectively told us that the Essenes were essentially Gnostics, and of course this label has scared many to seriously consider what they actually stood for in relation to the Sadducees and Pharisees. It is probable that in Yahushua’s time they were not all gnostic in their ways, and that many Essenes would have followed the way of Yahushua Messiah, leaving those who did not to remain behind and become more mystical and isolated in their communities as they continued to struggle against the dominance of the Saduccees and Pharisees. Ultimately we know that with the Roman conquest of Jerusalem of 70 CE, the Sadducean hegemony over the Temple was destroyed, the Essenes were isolated into small communites in the wilderness, but the Pharisees consolidated their position as Rabbinical Judaism was able to quickly adapt to the Roman exile. However 20th century Roman Christendom and Rabbinicalism appears to have controversially guarded the Dead Sea Scroll artifacts from being made available to the public for many decades causing some commentators to argue that was a deliberate theologically motivated conspiracy marking the most significant Christian controversy of the 20th Century.

The book “The Dead Sea Scrolls Deception” details the explosive contents of the Dead Sea Scrolls and how the Christian Church was concerned to suppress them. Whilst the Dead Sea Scrolls were found in 1945, it has taken 60 years for just some of the archeological information to leak out about these extraordinary people. Information has been released in little parts over the years with the last release of texts being occurring in 2011. It is not known what still remains under lock and key. What apparently was so shocking to the scholars who have examined the ancient documents is that they presented evidence of a Jewish sect practicing a faith in many instances congruent with the ethics of the early messianic believers and the Apostles, for nearly 200 years before John the Baptist and Yahushua.

The Essenes believed in the resurrection from the Dead, and the keeping of the Law of Moses and they, specifically in contrast to the Sadducees and Pharisees were prophetically expecting the imminent arrival of the Messiah to come and redeem them. They lived in a way whereby they held all things in common with no private properties, as was the experience and testimony of the early congregation of Yahushua described in the book of Acts.

It is significant to note that John the Baptist was ministering to the people of Jerusalem and Judea when he saw the Pharisees and Sadducees pitch up, whereupon he directly rebuked them both as being vipers and snakes, and he called on them to do some serious repentance back to the written scriptures.

Matthew 3: 5 Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and all the region round about Jordan,

6 And were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins.

7 ¶ But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?

8 Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance:

We remember that Yahushua himself also gave admonishment to his disciples to watch out and to beware the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees (Matthew 16:6).

We also know from the book of Acts that it was the Pharisees and Sadducees who, in the endeavor to preserve their hegemony, undertook actions to destroy the both the testimony and the individual people of the messianic congregation, as recorded in the martyrdom of Stephen.

We should also take notice that nowhere in the Gospel accounts or the Book of Acts, is their evidence of either John the Baptist, Yahushua Messiah or the Apostles rebuking the Essenes or giving warning to the early congregation to avoid the teachings of the Essenes. This is not to say that the Essenes are to be seen as teaching John and Yahushua Messiah, but that John and Yahsuhua would have been received as teachers by the Essenes. In this historical reality is it not a curious omission in the annals of historical Rabbinical and Christian history that the Essenes have been brushed aside as a minor aberration to mainstream religion, when in fact they were such a large part of the religious fabric in Judea at the time of both John the Baptist and Yahushua messiah?.

The fact that the Essenes were such a large and significant part of the struggle over the biblical calendar leads some today some conclude that a significant conspiracy still continues to be afoot by Christian and Jewish institutional religious powers, to keep the historical information about Essenes from being publicly known. This is especially so when it comes down to the matter of which biblical calendar did Yahushua actually observe – the lunar calendar or the astronomical solar calendar?


From this we note that:

  • The Essenes were one of the three main leading Jewish sects in Judea in the time of Yahushua Messiah and John the Baptist. The others we know from the gospels were the Pharisees and the Sadducees. The Essenes were in major conflict with the other sects over the way of faith, the ethics and way of the commandments of Moses.
  • Many think that John The Baptist was a Levite of the Aaronic order and as such was usurped by the Hasmoneans, Sadducees, and Idumeans typified by Caiaphas, and that John was living a life closest to the sect of the Essenes.
  • Both John the Baptist and Yahushua Messiah made direct comments reflecting their utter rejection of the Sadducees and Pharisees and their religion and authority in YHVH’s Kingdom.
  • Both John the Baptist and Yahushua Messiah made no rebuke of the Essenes and proclaimed a way of faith and life that reflects much of the ways the Essene observed.
  • Historical Christianity blacklisted the Essene’s as being Gnostics, and together with Rabbinicalism (Pharisaic Judaism) it would appear that the silence of both concerning the keeping of information contained in the Dead Sea Scrolls from view of the public for many decades now, appears to demonstrate an interest to suppress the information the Qumran Scrolls hold concerning the Essenes under lock and key only releasing on (select?) portions over a period of some 60 years now.  

The Essene Calendar And Yahushua’s Behavioural Testimony

Thus in this historical context, what is of particular significance to us is the religious calendar of the Essenes, and given the Gospel of Marks testimony, whether the Passover of Yahusha can be explained by the close proximity of the astronomical calendar similar to that being observed by the Essenes against the lunar calendar being observed by the Temple at the time of Yahushua.

The Essenes kept the astronomical solar calendar, which is completely different to the Sadducean /Rabbinical lunar calendar. The Essenes used the reference point of the equinoxes and solstices as the 4 markers of the biblical year. Theologically the Essenes began counting their calendar from the first Wednesday (Day 4) following the vernal equinox (about March 20, Gregorian), given their understanding of the account of creation, and consequently the 14th of Aviv – the Day of Preparation for the Passover always fell on a Tuesday. This is a very significant point when we come to consider Yahushua’s behaviour in choosing the day of preparation for His Passover as we saw previously record in Mark 14:12-26.

It is beyond the scope of this article to make a full consideration of the Essene religious calendar here and whether the way they initiated the calendar is correct. What we need to be aware of though is the historical reality that in Yahushua’s days there were two completely different religious calendars being observed in Judea.

The Rabbinical lunar calendar we know today is derived from the foundational precepts of the practice of those who controlled the Temple in the time of Yahushua – that being lunar based, whilst the Essene followed the astronomical equinox calendar, and it can be reasonably assumed that this calendar was also followed by many common people across the cities of Judea. The Essene calendar was not a hidden or minor movement in that historical time and all of Judea at that time would have known about this calendar and how it differed from the Sadducean / Pharisee lunar calendar.

Hence, when Yahushua said to his disciples they were to go and find the man carrying the water pitcher, who was “the good man” we now can understand that they knew they were looking for an Essene, a Levite in the city who was living in the “Way of the Torah of Moses”, and that this man would be keeping a different calendar date for the Passover than to the Temple. Hence we do not find recorded in the scriptures any protest or comment being made by the Disciples that Yahushua might have surprised them by electing the wrong date for His Passover.

We know that Yahushua’s Apostles were mainly selected from among the supposedly religiously uneducated common people (as perceived by the Sadducean and Pharisaic perspective that is), and that the disciples were not surprised at Yahushua command for His Passover date. The reality is that the common people including the Apostles were very familiar with the Torah of Moses and the writings of the prophets and the Essenes and their practises concerning the biblical calendar. What the common people and the Essenes did not know was what Yahushua, as Messiah, would come to correct in His teachings of how Moshe was pointing to Him concerning “the Way, the Truth and the Life” in YHVH.

In addition, the Qumran materials point out strongly that the Essenes were apocalyptic in their worldview and were looking for imminent appearance of the Messiah who would come and redeem them and restore “the Way”, and having already experienced John the Baptist’s ministry, many would have already become disciples of John and clearly would then have been open to receive Yahushua into their community home at his request that He would keep the Passover there in their residence. The Sadducees and Pharisees however would have rejected any request from Yahushua to keep the Passover in their homes, particularly since their calendar dates were for the appointment to be a day later.

With Yahushua commanding His disciples to go to the house of the water carrier ( the “good man”) He is very clearly demonstrating by His behaviour that He is in accord with the Essene calendar identification on that specific year for the Passover.

We do not have any evidence whether Yahushua supported the method of how the Essenes began their count of their calendar on a Wednesday, since it will be shown below in that specific year the vernal equinox fell out during the daylight part of Wednesday, making the 1st of Aviv to fall out on the Tuesday evening/night previous. But what we do know, is that when Yahushua chose his Passover meal on the evening beginning Aviv 15, the Essene water carrier was there at the house on the very day and evening that Yahushua chose to keep the Passover.

For the sake of repetition, it is important remember that neither a Pharisee nor a Sadducee would have accepted such a request from Yahushua since they did not keep the solar calendar and their day for the observance of Passover would, from the account of the Gospels, only be occurring the following evening.

Consequently we now know from the history of the Essenes and the dead sea scrolls that the account of scripture that Yahushua indeed kept His LAWFULL Passover, but it was on a calendar concomitant with the traditions of the Essenes, that was different to the lunar based calendar of the Sadducees and Pharisees.

The Year of the Yahushua’s Crucifixion

With this information we can also work out the year in which Yahushua Messiah was crucified, since Yahushua called the Sadducees and the Pharisees who were testing Him for a sign that He was the Messiah, a “wicked and adulterous” generation – terminology by which he was referring to them as the religious sects which dominated the Temple – that there would specifically be three days and three nights after which He would rise from the dead. When we bring together this prophetic sign together with knowledge of the Essene calendar which observed the astronomical year beginning with the vernal equinox, and with the knowledge of the Rabbinical lunar calendar which altogether had to fall together with 1 single day separating them, whilst still preserving the sign of the three days and nights, astronomically I have discovered that that it was only possible to have occurred on only one but one specific year in the known time of Yahushua Messiah. That year is 30 CE and is demonstrated in the data tables below.

The following tables will demonstrate, based on astronomical data of the luminaries, that 30 CE appears as the only year the two religious calendars (the calendar of the “water carrier” the “Good Man” and the Saducean Temple calendar), occurred singularly to the proximity of just one day separating them, with the Yahushua holding His Passover at the house of the “Good Man” in the evening exactly and precisely on Aviv 14/15, precisely a day before the concomitant Rabbinical calendar date of the Temple’s practicing of their Nisan 14/15 date, for Passover / Unleavened Bread, whilst at the same time exactly fitting Yahushua’s sign to the “wicked and adulterous generation” of three days and three nights before the occurring of the resurrection. In no other years examined between 25 CE and 34 CE was this be an astronomical reality found to be realised because of the variations in the dates occurring between the vernal equinox and the conjunction new moon in each other year.

Table 1 presents the JULIAN Calendar dates for the astronomical events of the vernal equinox, the new moon conjunction and the first visible crescent moon:

Table 1: Julian Calendar Dates Of Astronomical Events: Years 25-37 CE

Year Vernal Equinox (Julian) Astronomical New Moon (Conjunction) First Visible Crescent
26 CE Fri. Mar. 22, 0 Sat. Apr. 6, 7 a.m. Sun. Apr. 7
27 CE Sun. Mar. 23, 6 a.m. Wed. Mar. 26, 7 p.m. Fri. Mar. 28
28 CE Mon. Mar. 22, noon Mon. Mar. 15, 4 a.m. Tues. Mar 16 / Wed. Apr 14
29 CE Tues. Mar. 22, 6 p.m. Sat. Apr. 2, 7 p.m. Mon. Apr. 4
30 CE Wed. Mar. 22, 12.00 a.m. Wed. Mar. 22, 8 p.m. Fri. Mar. 24: 7 pm
31 CE Fri. Mar. 23, 5 a.m. Tues. Apr. 10, 2 p.m. Wed. Apr. 11
32 CE Sat. Mar. 22, 11 a.m. Sat. Mar. 29, 10 p.m. Mon. Mar. 31
33 CE Sun. Mar. 22, 5 p.m. Fri. Mar. 20, 9 a.m.
Fri. Apr. 17, 9 p.m.
Sat. Mar. 21
Sun. Apr. 19
34 CE Mon. Mar. 22,11 p.m. Tues. Mar. 9, 6 a.m. Wed. Apr. 10

Some who support the first sliver of the moon calendar have pointed to 31 CE as the week of the crucifixion simply because the new moon sliver occurred a Wednesday (April 11), as this they believe would mark Nisan 1, (day 1 of the 14 day count to Passover). However the vernal equinox of that year occurred some 19 days previous and given the Essenes would have begun counting Aviv 1 on Wednesday 28th March, the falling of the days proves that in that year the Essene Water Carrier would have already be keeping his Passover on that day when the sliver moon would be indicating that the year was just beginning. In other words the sliver moon was about two weeks late that year! So the year 31 CE does not fit the scriptural account of Mark 14:12-26.

Table 2 presents the Vernal Equinox calculated from NASA are presented in the Gregorian dates (see: http://www.giss.nasa.gov/ar5/srvernal.html (NASA)

Table 2: Gregorian Calendar Dates And GMT Of Equinox Events: Years 25-37 CE

Year CE
Vernal Equinox GMT Time


20th March


20th March



20th March



20th March



20th March



20th March



20th March



20th March



20th March



20th March



20th March



20th March



20th March


**Middle East time is 2 later than GMT and would be precisely 14:06 hours (2pm).

Before continuing further, the Gregorian dates need to be converted to Julian dates. The 20th March CE converted from the Gregorian Calendar to the Julian Calendar dates falls out on Wednesday 22nd March 30 CE (see http://www.csgnetwork.com/julianmanycalconv.html ).

Note: because the equinox occurs during the day of Wednesday 22nd the Essenes would not have looked to a Wednesday a week later to start their beginning of year count, but would have counted Aviv 1 from Tuesday evening 21st at even, in alignment with the Apostles’ account of Passover in

Table 3: Counting the Days Between The Two Religious Calendars In 30 CE

From the above table it is clear that the sighted sliver moon calendar fell even further out by yet another day as compared to the conjunctive moon calendar, revealing that the new moon first sliver moon calendar (as proposed by the contemporary Karaites) was simply not observed in the Temple or in Judea in the time of Yahushua, and that if one was observing the moon sliver calendar that year of 30 CE one would be keeping Passover on the Friday evening – 3 days after Yahushua kept His Passover! This also points out that the Karaite lunar sliver calendar is invalid when explaining the events described in Mark 14:12-26.

It also becomes apparent from the table as presented that the date of Aviv 1, as instructed by Moses, is not necessarily the date of Nisan 1 proclaimed by the Rabbinical lunar calendar.

The difference between the two calendars in 30 CE was just one day, which explains that the Passover of Yahushua was authentic and lawful, but the crucifixion carried out by the religious leaders of the day was an illegal act undertaken by a “wicked and adulterous generation” who did not hold any respect for the calendar the Essenes claimed has existed from ancient times before the Noah. Yahushua, however having kept His Passover a day earlier was lawfully correct, and the institutional religion of the day was iniquitous and wrong, and thus Yahushua was unjustly condemned and illegally crucified by an illegal priesthood who imposed an illegal calendar on the temple and the Jewish people. Consequently everything about the crucifixion reveals the grace and mercy of YHVH that Yahushua would submit his life to such an idolatrous and apostate religious authority, which he described as “wicked and adulterous”.

Historical Christendom would have us believe that Yahushua consequently never kept the Passover on the date that He did but only a last supper, colluding with the perspective that the practise of the temple in that day was lawful. This is an entirely wrong perspective, since Yahushua Messiah is the face of YHVH, and according to the testimony of the Apostle Paul, He was in the wilderness with Israel at Mount Sinai when the law was given. Thus the proper perspective should be that Yahushua was correct and righteous in holding His Passover on the date that He chose, according to the law of YHVH given at Mount Sinai.

The Wicked And Adulterous Generation

When the Pharisees and Sadducees came to Yahushua asking for a sign from heaven to test him in a claim that he was Messiah, Yahushua responded by calling them a “wicked and adulterous generation”. There is no evidence that Yahushua showed any of such vehemence to the Essenes, but rather called the Water Carrier the “good man”

Mathew 16: 1 ¶ The Pharisees also with the Sadducees came, and tempting desired him that he would shew them a sign from heaven.2 He answered and said unto them, When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the sky is red.

3 And in the morning, It will be foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowring. O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times?

A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas. And he left them, and departed.

It was the “wicked and adulterous generation” that murdered John the Baptist. It was the “wicked and adulterous generation” that was ruling the Temple and had over ruled the Levites. From Yahushua’s example, it was the “wicked and adulterous generation” that observed the lunar calendar and thereby changed the appointed times of YHVH as instructed by Moses. It was the “wicked and adulterous generation” that was the presiding religious authority who had control over the Temple in Yahushua’s day.

This being the case, how can one continue to proclaim that Yahushua’s Passover was but a “last supper” and that it is the time of His crucifixion was the time when His role as the Passover lamb was Divinely proclaimed? Rather the text indicates that His proclamation of being the Passover Lamb occurred at his very Passover meal. Is Yahushua not YHVH – did He not make the proclamation that He was the Lamb at His own Passover and did He not offer participation in the renewed covenant directly to His Apostles at that specific Passover?

In the day of Yahushua ministry, the “wicked and adulterous generation”, under the sovereignty of the Sadducean Temple, Herod the Idumean (Edomites) and later the Romans (Edomites), the biblical biblical calendar was compromised and Yahushua was thus illegally and wickedly murdered under the iniquitous, adulterous religious calendar of the Sadducees and Pharisees. Was the Shekinah presence of YHVH in the Temple at that time, or was the glorious presence of YHVH in the midst of the Apostles in the very time of the Gospel witness of the time of Yahushua’s Passover meal when He said this is my body…this is my blood..given for you? Whose report will we believe?

Having discovered the historical, astronomical and biblical witness, I now am convicted that it was all accomplished and fulfilled at Yahushua’s Passover. The events of the next day was just a carrying out of the what needed to be done, and the timing of it was to fulfil the only sign of three days and nights that Yahushua had given the wicked and adulterous generation. It was the only sign that these wicked were given since they were not invited to Yahushua’s Passover meal.

It is but the grace and mercy of YHVH that He reached through the adultery of the Temple and permitted His Son to be crucified in the very heart of an apostate religious Temple system, yet still identifying with a Passover Lamb when it was being sacrificed in the temple.

Thus we have to re-examine our view of Yahushua’s Passover – it was indeed a lawful Passover and Yahushua sacrifice was lawfully put in place for His people when He identified himself at His Passover meal as the Lamb of YHVH, at the very time when HE broke the bread and gave the wine as His body and blood sacrifice been given in our place – that was that lawful time when His identification of the Lamb was lawfully consecrated in Heaven, rather than when He was sacrificed on the tree by an apostate religious system. Then, according to Yahushua’s prophesy, the sign given to the wicked and adulterous generation was that he would be resurrected 3 days and 3 nights from the time when they had themselves illegally organised to have him executed, would be fulfilled.

What Of The Aviv Barley Report?

It is not possible to exhaustively review the theology of the Karaite calendar concerning the anchor condition of the Aviv Barley precept for identifying the beginning of the biblical year. However, having considered the timing of the luminary events of the equinox and the conjunction and sliver moons around the Passover in its historical 30 CE context, and from Genesis 1:14 we find that YHVH’s law is not compromised in anyway by the Calendar Yahushua observed (which we know from the archaeology of the Qumran Dead Sea Scrolls which the Essenes observed, and which was based on the equinox).

Genesis 1:14 ¶ And Elohiym said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

No where in this declaration of Genesis 1:14 is the Barley Aviv mentioned for the counting of days and years. Thus the Aviv Barley is not a sign for biblical days or years, or appointed times of YHVH, but is a purely constructed (oral) theology that seems right in the eyes of some men.

By the behavioural witness of Yahushua, the Aviv barley condition for the identification of the new biblical year is thus a constructed theology and is merely indirectly a result of the changes occurring around astronomical equinox. However, both Rabbincs and Kairates, do not accept the Apostles testimony of Yahushua as The Messiah of YHVH.

In my understanding, the Barley is but a blessing of first fruits from YHVH to His people when they were in the land for the time approaching for the required offering of the First Fruits, and the very provision of the First Fruits offering, so that, as a blessing of being in the land, it could the people of Israel could present the offering before YHVH at the appointed time. It was also the season when Israel would remember they were brought out of Egypt on the first exodus.

Exodus 13:4 This day came ye out in the month of Abib

The “month of Abib” means the month of newly ripened grain, the month when the barley is ripening. Where does the scripture plainly say that it say that the next new moon signals the beginning of the new year? A lot of theological inference is being added don’t you think?

Moreover, neither did Moses and the Israelites receive the Barley report when they were in the wilderness for 40 years, yet the year and the appointed times were declared and the months were heralded by the blowing of silver trumpets by the priests at the Tabernacle.

The Aviv Barley condition however does enable the Karaite to keep their version of the lunar calendar from completely drifting away from the equinox, since the growth condition of plants is directly impacted on by the amount of light they receive and so is linked to the equinox.

Is there a 13th Month Leap Year in YHVH’s Biblical Calendar?

The Essene astronomical calendar only permited 12 months to be the biblical year and never a 13th month as needed for intercalation in the lunar calendar. In the Essene calendar an adjustment of 7 days was intercalated on the 5th or 6th year, but other than that their calendar was very stable an the appointed times occurred each year on the same dates, given the equinox role in the start of the count, thus making the calendar very orderly and predictable which enabled the Israelites, who residing in distant lands, to be able to know when they had to begin their journeys for the “going up” times that was required three times a year, without being dependant on either Aviv or lunar sightings in the land of Judea.

In 1 Kings 4:7 it is written that there were 12 months in the year during the time of King Solomon.

In 1 Chronicles 27:1-15, it is written that there were 12 months for the changing of the royal guard, with each month set delegated one of 12 months. Whose Report Will You Believe?

The last days are upon us and we are about to meet our Redeemer, Yahushua Messiah. So whose report will we believe concerning the biblical calendar? Will it be Yahushua’s testimony and the witness of His Apostles as plainly written in the text of the Gospels that we consider to be the true way, or will it be the Rabbis, the Karaites or the Christians, with their forbidding treatises of avoiding the astronomical equinox.

Abba is calling His remnant to deep repentance and acknowledgement that we have inherited deceptive lies from out fathers (Jer 16:19). Praise YHVH for He has called us in these last days to remember the words of Moshe and in doing this the ground has been prepared that we might be able to understand the difficult matters of our faith. Yet He is testing us to see if we will seek Him with all our hearts. Then He will enable us to find Him and to know His Way!!

I certainly do not make any claim have all the answers on YHVH’s biblical calendar or the Essene calendar, and I am convinced from this study that all of us probably still have the calendar incorrect at this time – but we are learning and He will bring us into greater revelation as He brings us back from the exile and sets us free from the prison houses of Babylon.

I found myself called by Abba to examine this subject for myself after Shavuot this year as I became increasingly convicted of the significance of the Day of Atonement this year and my anticipation of what Yahushua Messiah might prophetically accomplish on this day, this year, in the heavenly place. I am on a journey of faith and still do not consider to have everything all right at this point, however a re-consideration of Yahushua’s testimony concerning the calendar He observed, has struck me with far greater significance now.

If the 1st day of the first biblical month and the 1st Day of seventh biblical month can be correctly identified, then it is simply a matter of counting days according to the law of Moses (Lev 23) to be able to identify the correct days for all the appointed times.

Should we follow the Essenes? No, we are not instructed by the scripture to do this. Our way, according to the Apostles, is to follow Yahushua’s Messiah’s way and to believe His testimony and leave all religion of men behind us, as the prophet Jeremiah declared religion is nothing but vanity. Praise YHVH that Yahushua Messiah will redeem us in the coming days and will lead us to the highway of righteousness!

In the end, we who care to follow Yahushua and are called must continue to study the matter for ourselves and to pray that Abba brings us into His truth. Whether this be a matter of truth in accordance to the Word of YHVH, and the Gospels of the Apostles, will be established in the end – and to each we need to be fully persuaded in our own minds.

There are some who have written to me that I should refrain from discussing the significance of equinox to the biblical calendar since it is a matter that it only serves to further exacerbate division” at a time when so-called “Messianic Movement” is (denominationally?) divided on this issue. In answer to my critics I am reminded of the words of Polycrates, who in the matter of the Quartodeciman Disputes between the Eastern congregations (represented by Polycrates) and the Western congregations (represented by Bishop Victor) in the late second century, stated “greater men than I have said we must follow YHVH rather than men”.

I thank Abba for His grace and mercy even in these very late hours He has extended to me, in opening my eyes to the fuller testimony of Yahushua’s worship calendar! It has become evident to many across the globe that there are an increasing number other sincere believers in Yahushua, who keep the commandments of YHVH, who are also being woken up to this issue of the historicity of the astronomical biblical calendar and the behavioural testimony of Yahushua Messiah with His last Passover meal. Contrary to the few who have written to me of their objections in this matter, a good number have written to me to commend my defence of the biblical calendar. I thank you for your encouragement.

As this matter is at the heart of our walk in faith and testimony of Yahushua, I do expect that if what I have reported here is indeed biblically and astronomically true, then we are soon facing a great Elijah type wake up call in the coming days – it is the last days and decisions will be made, as to whose report we will follow – the Rabbis, the Karaites, (who both reject Yahushua Messiah), or the Messianic Rabbis, the Messianic Karaites, or the report of Yahushua’s Apostles. Its seems to me this might be our final call to come out of the “prison houses” of Babylon.

This bulletin comes as a result of my own wake up call and repentance from the lunar calendar, which I understood to be correct in the past, and to explain to the many who have asked as to why I am keeping a slightly different calendar dates to what is considered mainstream. I do not claim to have all things understood at this time – I find it to be as in the time twenty years ago when I first began discovering the Hebraic roots of the faith and I trusting in Abba to lead me into his truth of His remnant return. As it was then, so I find myself again crawling and again trust in Abba to both convict, to guide and to reveal His Way.

Let us continue to be strong in faith in Yahushua Messiah, until He comes, for He will not forget His covenant with us!


Click here for Original article on: What Calendar Did Yahushua Keep


Website Readings etc:

NASA: Time And Date of the Vernal Equinox: http://www.giss.nasa.gov/ar5/srvernal.html

Gregorian / Julian Calendar Converter: http://www.csgnetwork.com/julianmanycalconv.html

Calendar for Israel Year 30 CE: http://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/?year=30&country=34

Timing and Calculating the Holy Days – Calculating the Beginning of the Biblical Year http://www.lightedway.org/year.html

The Essenes: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essenes

Essenes: http://reluctant-messenger.com/essene/index.html

Essenes: Profile of the Essenes – Creators of the Dead Sea Scrolls: http://bible.org/seriespage/essenes

The Essenes: http://bible.org/seriespage/essenes

Who Were The Essenes? http://www.essortment.com/were-essenes-20344.html

The Essenes and the Dead Sea Scrolls

What does the discovery of these scrolls reveal about first century Judaism and the roots of Christianity? http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/portrait/essenes.html

The Mystery and Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls. This is the introduction from noted scholar Hershel Shanks’ book (Random House April 1998), an illuminating and readable background summary on the scrolls. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/portrait/scrollmeaning.html

Qumran http://www.biblewalks.com/Sites/Qumran.html


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The year is 364 days – NOT 365 1/4

The year is 364 days, NOT 365 1/4

The year is 364 days

After some research and much meditation and deliberation, I have come to the belief that the year IS 364 days indeed and NOT 365 1/4 - THAT (a 365 ¼ day year), I believe is an Egyptian/JULIAN/GREGORIAN creation!!! We are told that the year is 365 1/4 days but what if this it is not true? Could we be trying to fit a 364 day year into a 365 (or 366) day year when in fact we should be doing the reverse (fit a 365 1/4 day back into the real/true year)?

For starters, one Creator, (‘Enoch day’) is NOT equal to one (1) Gregorian Day.  A day as revealed to Enoch and other Scriptures (Gen 8, Daniel 7:25, 9:25, Rev 11:2, 13:5 among others) starts at sunrise (or sunset to sunset). One ‘Enoch’ day has 36 moments of 40 minutes each or 80 minutes for an 18 parts day (minutes according to our method of time keeping) and is ‘broken up’ in three part intervals. Many people believe Yahshua may have been on our current time keeping system because He asked, “…are there not 12 hours in the day?” but it is also written, in the book of Jubilees that two parts are given to the light and one part to the evening – Two thirds of eighteen ‘parts’ is twelve (2/3 * 18 = 12); so I believe they were on the calendar system revealed to Enoch…Noah, Abraham, Moses and the Levites…until sometime after the split of the Kingdom and the intermingling with the nations.

  • “observe the Passover on the day of its fixed time, on the fourteenth day of the first month, between the evenings, from the third part of the day to the third part of the night, for two portions of the day are given to the light, and a third part to the evening. (Jubilees 49:10-13)”
  • The sun…stood still…thirty six moments…a whole day – Jasher 88:63
  • The sun stood still a whole day – Joshua 10:12

The Gregorian calendar on the other hand was a spin-off from the Julian calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February 1582. It is explicitly stated in it’s opening words, that “The Gregorian calendar is an arithmetical calendar…” They count days as the basic unit of time (grouping them into years of 365 or 366 days). The solar day is defined (by scientists) as the ‘time’ from noon-noon or mid-night to mid-night (an oxymoron). You will see the error if you realize that this time interval is not constant, but varies because the position of the sun at noon changes from day to day.  Their definition of a day is incorrect – a day is “one revolution” of the earth in relation to the sun.

The earth’s daily movement in relation to the sun, is not circular but elliptical and the sun’s position is not on a fixed plain from day to day, but moves lightly east or west (noon to noon for example) – these daily shifts, results in an apparent figure 8 pattern (of the apparent movement of the sun), over a period of the full year. Erroneously they are defining a day by the earths position (B) in its elliptical orbit (by pre-determined ‘time’) before one full earth rotation, as opposed to its position (A) when it has completed its full 360 degree rotation on the said elliptical plane.

THEY say we have a 365 1/4 solar day year, each with 24 hours, BUT I’m gathering that these are not true 24 hours but sidereal 24 hours which (they say) is equal to a sidereal day with 23 hours, 56 min, 4.1 sec; a ‘day’ that is incomplete.   You can see that their day is incomplete, because they have also stated that it takes the earth an extra degree to complete one solar day.  That’s what they put in our text books, but it really is not true! – The (full/true) day, in relationship to the sun’s ‘movement’ is actually more than our current 24 hour ‘solar’ days – Movement from point A to Point B (with full 360 degrees earth rotation), in relation to the sun’s position at the horizon, is a true, ‘Enoch’ (solar) Day.

One Sidereal day (currently) is approximately 4 minutes more than 1 Gregorian solar day. Said another way, (by their definition) a full sidereal day requires an extra one (1) degree rotation of earth, to be equal in time to a solar day – That is not true! The reason this is so is because they have defined a solar day incorrectly…resulting in one (collective) extra sidereal day by the end of the year (actually 1 1/4 –  And as you are aware, the fraction is left off and added as another day every four years).

The year is 364 daysThe year is 364 days

364 day year of exactly 24 hours per day, gives a year of 8736 hours or a total of 524,160 minutes per year. Likewise, a 365 day year of 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds per day gives a year of 8736 hours or a total of 524,160 minutes per year. Likewise a 366 day year of 23 hours, 52 minutes, and 13 seconds per day gives a year of 8736 hours or a total of 524,160 minutes per year - The Day does not change, but their allocation of time changes to create more days.

So, if the year is 364 Days, where did the 365 come from?

They have created a Sidereal year based on sidereal days, which creates more than 364 Regular Days in a year (365 1/4 in fact).The Egyptians as well as the counties of the East used a calendar with a 360 base year as does the True Creator, so-called ‘Enoch Calender; because the instructions came via Enoch, then Noah across the flood and was passed down to Abraham…and Joseph, one of whom brought it to Egypt. Major ‘Calender Reform’ began one day when the Egyptians ‘discovered’ a particular star (Sirius) alignment every 1,460 ‘days’ (every four years) and that the Nile flooded the day after that particular alignment (as it did each year). The flooding of the Nile was very important to Egypt (as it determined their livelihood and prosperity), so they begun to define/calculate the year as 1,461/4 (based on that star alignment), which produced a year of 365 ¼ sidereal (star) days. Since Egypt at this time was the world Power, this calendar model then spread through-out the region and into Europe…and was inherited by the Greeks, then Rome, which now still rules.

Scientists now say THIS (365 ¼ Day year) is a solar year (from equinox to equinox) BUT that is not true, because their definition of a solar day is incorrect. Interestingly, this change started about the time that the Hebrews (the unfaithful 10 Tribes) were kicked out of “The land” (about 721 BC) – It was prophesied through Hosea that the Sabbaths and holy days would be taken. The major conversion (to the Babylonian moon and Egyptian Sidereal/star focus) for the rest (Judah and companion) came later during the time of the Greeks (BC – as recorded in the Maccabees), but was further solidified after the 70 AD dispersion and the destruction of The Temple, by Rome.

Is 1:14, I hate your new moon festivals and your appointed feasts, They have become a burden to Me; I am weary of bearing them.…

Hosea 2:11 I will put an end to all her mirth, her feasts, her new moons, her Sabbaths, and all her appointed feasts.

When days are added to a calendar (which is essentially what happened in this case), it usually occurs before the end of the year. For example, February 29th is added every four years because March 1st was the beginning of the year in ancient Rome – 1 January took ‘first’ place in 1600 in Scotland. The original Roman calender as lunar based and Idus, (Ides - Ides of March) was thought to have been the day of the full moon, and was the 13th day of the months with 29 days, but the 15th day of March, May, July, and October (in the months with 31 days). If the ‘Enoch’ year truly starts on March 16th then this (March 15th – the day mostly notable in ancient times, as a deadline for settling debts) would be the day to remove the ‘added day’ (after the ‘time’ is taken back)…and January 29th for the leap day, (another day that was created to ‘fix’ their faulty creation [365 1/4 = 365 + (1/4* 4)].

The year will always have 8736 hours, whether it is a 364 Regular/True Day year of exactly 24 hours per day, or a 365 Sidereal Day year of 23.93425 hours per day, or a 366 Leap Day year of 23.86885 hours per day, and the difference is a reduction in minutes and seconds from a Regular Days, to create these extra days. Because each Gregorian day is NOT one true day, in truth, one true solar day = one true sidereal day - It speaks to the TRUTH written in Enoch: “the sun and the stars brings on the year in perfection in 364 days.”  (Enoch 72, 74).

The year is 364 days

Because they (The Gregori) start the days at mid-night (and not sunset as one should for a solar day) and on GMT, that further complicates things…Additionally, we are made to deal with ‘daylight saving time’ changes (because they must maximize the time of light for gain and profitability); and ‘couple’ all that with the various time zones (not one central time) – Whew! I am by no means a quitter and I don’t think I’m a dummy either (having even taught College Math) but it seems near impossible to reconcile the Gregorian calender and the Enoch calendar together because they are two different calendar systems and there are too many variables. The explanations above are the reasons why people are ending up with extra days at the end of 364 days - ALL DAYS ARE NOT CREATED EQUALLY! STILL, I believe all things are possible

The TRUTH is that a year (of 364 ‘Enoch’ days) IS perfectly equal to ‘their’ misappropriated solar year. It has been made confusing, because of the sidereal focus. The true, creator’s calendar system is really not complicated – The complication is that we are trying to work with a perfect Calendar system, within the framework of a very flawed/imperfect model; for they “shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws (Daniel 7:25)” - Shall is present continuous tense…And they have been doing so from BC (2 Maccabees 1:41-51, 1 Maccabees 6:7)…

So, if I am correct in my understanding (as explained above), each (True) ‘Enoch’ Day actually starts approximately 4 minutes later than the previous Enoch day; and so by the end of the first Sabbath of the year (which equates to 7 days) we should see a true day that starts approximately 27 minutes later than its Gregorian ‘equivalent’ (day). By “Trumpets” we will have gained back 1/2 of a day + 3 hours (of the 1 false sidereal day that they ‘added’)…and the Sabbath will start on another Gregorian day (eg. Sun to Mon) by the end of the year, at which time we have regained all the parts of the whole (added) day)…making the year 364 days (as it truly IS); time interval, from equinox – equinox.

We need to ask ourselves the questions: By following the Julian/Gregorian time-keeping, have we LOST THE TRUE SABBATH DAYS? And is the Sabbath neither Sunday, nor Saturday (except once each seven years)? - It appears to me that the Sabbaths are (now) not fixed (on the Gregorian Calender); and the true Sabbath ‘start times’ in fact, now falls at ‘odd’ hours in relation to ‘time’ based on our clocks… I also perceive that we cannot go by “Date and Time” or other “time websites” and maintain full accuracy, because those days are not true 24 hour days…THUS, it is incorrect for us to equate 1st day with ‘Sunday’, 2nd day with Tuesday, 6th day with ‘Friday’ etc.

The year is 364 daysIf we want to find the True calendar as revealed through-out the scriptures (Gen 8, Daniel 7:25, 9:25, Rev 11:2, 13:5 among others)  I imagine we have to go by observed sunrises to determine days and accurately ‘plot’ the days of the year (ideally in the land) - By observance, each month the sun switches portals (month-month from 4th-5th-6th-6th-5th-4th-3rd-2nd-1st-1st-2nd-3rd-4th again) and at the end of each quarter it (the sun) remains in the same portal an extra day before switching position (as a sign/oth) to indicate that the month (30 days) and season (91 days) has changed. [This change in position, from portal to portal (‘star gates’), I believe is what creates the apparent figure 8].

I could be wrong in my analysis and assessment, so please feel free to offer constructive advice or additional thoughts. I pray this will be of some help in your studies (and not a discouragement). I also hope this will encourage further observations; and plotting by those who can, so we can all be on one accord, observing at the same time.

Shalom and Blessing from The Most High,

signature - Representing The Kingdom

I Grant Representing The Kingdom

“Blow the trumpet in Zion; sound the alarm signal on my holy mountain! Let all the inhabitants of the land shake with fear, for the day of the Lord is about to come.” Joel 2











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Enoch’s Calender

Enoch’s Calender – How The Books were removed & The Calender changed

“From the sun to the moon” 
05/07/2009 10:23

Enoch's Calender

Prof. Rachel Elior explains how the sages invented Judaism as we know it. 

The scene could be out of the Haggada – a group of rabbis sitting on the floor in a circle through the night, probably reclining on pillows, scrolls scattered about them, engaging in heated disputation until the pale light outside signals that a new day is upon them. The fact that this particular gathering, mentioned in the Talmud, is held in an attic (aliyat gag) might suggest to a modern reader that there is something clandestine about it, perhaps a desire to take distance from Roman ears or even from the surrounding Jewish population. Clandestine or not, this meeting, and all the similar gatherings that preceded and followed, contained the seeds of revolution – the radical restructuring of Jewish religious thought and practice that followed the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. According to Prof. Rachel Elior of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the rabbis were involved in nothing less than “a reinvention of Judaism…
They were closing an old world based on prophecy and angelic revelation and opening the sacred canon to human reinterpretation.” A glimpse into that intellectual ferment is provided in the brief depiction in the talmudic tractate Shabbat (13b) of the rabbinic gathering, perhaps in Yavne – which had become the major center of Jewish learning after the destruction of Jerusalem. “That man should be remembered with favor,” the passage says in reference to one of the participants in the meeting, “his name being Hanania son of Hezekiah, for if it were not for him the Book of Ezekiel would have been suppressed and withdrawn as its teachings contradict those of the Torah. What did he do? They brought him jugs of oil [for lamps] and he sat in the attic and expounded upon the texts [through the night].” What Hanania and his colleagues were engaged in was a culling of all the Hebrew religious texts composed until that time. The works they would choose from this library would constitute the Jewish canon which henceforth would be the only texts deemed to have divine authority. In the end, a consensus formed around 24 works, including the five books of the Pentateuch, which together would make up the Bible. But what of the works excluded from the canon? Many were of comparable literary and religious quality to those chosen, says Elior, a professor of Jewish philosophy and Jewish mystical thought.
“To many of the Jews of the first millennium BCE, all the texts had been equally holy,” she says. “The [excluded] Book of Enoch or Book of Jubilees were certainly not considered less sacred than the [canonical] Book of Judges or Esther or Daniel.” Yet the excluded texts – close to a dozen major works – were not just abandoned but excised as if they were a malignant growth. “Whoever reads them,” declared Rabbi Akiva, one of the foremost sages involved in the process, “will have no place in the world to come.” Left to die, some of the expelled texts were rescued and adopted by another religion. Newborn Christianity, which regarded itself as the successor of Judaism, incorporated these texts into its own corpus of holy works along with the Old Testament, as the Hebrew Bible came to be called. In time, Jewish scholars would rediscover the repudiated texts of their ancestors in Greek, Ethiopian (Geez), Syriac, Armenian and Slavic church translations. These writings, known as Apocrypha (“hidden scriptures” in Latin) would never be reincorporated into the Jewish library but would remain for scholars to puzzle over as they tried to understand by what criteria the texts had been rejected. HALF A century ago another lost library with a mystery attached surfaced on the shores of the Dead Sea, this one having been literally lost for 1,900 years after being hidden in the caves of Qumran. Many of these Dead Sea Scrolls would have been suppressed, says Elior, for the same reasons that the previously known apocryphal books were suppressed. In her recently published (Hebrew) book, Memory and Oblivion – The Mystery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, she offers a bold and coherent narrative to explain events about which scholars have long held contrary views. The short reason for the canon/Apocrypha divide, she suggests, was a dispute over the calendar.
The more profound explanation involves a power struggle between the old priestly order that believed its rulings to be divinely inspired and an emerging class of rabbis espousing a different narrative, one which gave human reason and laws a role in shaping the religion.
Elior demonstrates how mystic notions like cosmic calendars and heavenly chariots were part of a power struggle whose outcome would affect how Judaism is practiced to the present day. For centuries the Israelites had marked time according to a solar calendar drawn up by the priestly caste but regarded as divinely inspired. The calendar emulated the pattern set by God when He created the world in six days and rested on the seventh. The number seven would become a mystic measure of Jewish time. The Israelites adopted a seven-day week, apparently the first people in the world to do so, and they too rested on the seventh day. Every seventh year was designated a shmita year when the earth itself rested and lay fallow. Each cycle of seven times seven years, 49 years in all, would be followed by a jubilee year, a new beginning when indentured servants were freed and leased land reverted to its original owners. The time between the exodus from Egypt to Moses’s meeting with God on Mount Sinai would be remembered as seven weeks. Joshua would lead the Israelites across the Jordan in a jubilee year.
There would be, until this day, seven days of mourning, seven days between birth and male circumcision, seven days of female menstrual impurity. Elior terms the priestly calendar an exceptional mathematical construct that reflected a presumed cosmic order revealed to Enoch (Hanoch, in Hebrew), an intriguing biblical figure central to the priestly narrative but shunted aside by the rabbis. In Genesis (5:18), he is mentioned briefly in the long list of descendents of Adam – the seventh generation of the patriarchs of mankind, and thus safely distanced from the incest that necessarily marked the earliest generations – but his listing is unique. As with all the others, it gives the number of years he lived – 365 in his case, not coincidentally the number of days of the year – and tells whom he begot – Methuselah, who lived 969 years and who in turn begat Noah. However, the thumbnail biography of Enoch does not end like all the others with the words “and he died.” Instead, it says “And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him.” The Bible does not elaborate on this, but the Apocrypha does. Several versions of the Book of Enoch preserved by the church have been found in different languages. (Several scrolls of Enoch turned up in Qumran as well, in Aramaic.) They describe Enoch being brought up to heaven and granted immortality along with a two-way ticket. At God’s direction, he is taught by angels to read, write and calculate numbers – the first human given this knowledge. He then returns to earth to share with humankind what he has learned, including the solar calendar.
The priests, wrote Elior in an earlier book, The Three Temples: On the Emergence of Jewish Mysticism, viewed this calendar as “a cyclic reflection of an eternal divine order.” The priests were the calendar’s guardians, privy to secrets imparted by angels and, like Enoch, would serve as conduits between the heavenly and the terrestrial. It was members of the priestly caste and prophets, many of whom were priests, who wrote the books that would form the Bible, and they wrote the books that would become the Apocrypha as well. Everything the priests wrote was considered sacred because they were, in effect, taking dictation from the angels.
They regarded the angels as their heavenly counterparts and saw themselves as working with them to ensure a synchronization of the cosmic order in heaven and on earth. THE MOST tangible earthly manifestation of the solar calendar was the priestly work roster on the Temple Mount. Twenty-four priestly families, the same number as the number of hours in a day, took weekly turns attending to animal sacrifices and other Temple rituals. Like army reservists today, members of one of these families would go up to the Mount on Sunday morning and officiate until relieved by the next family a week later. These priestly “watches” gave a time frame to the life of the entire community, says Elior.
From the time the Temple was built by Solomon in the 10th century BCE, the High Priest was chosen from a family line descended from the priest Zadok, who had carried the Ark of God in David’s time and anointed David’s son, Solomon, as king. The last Zadokite (Sadducee) high priest was ousted during the political chaos that preceded the Hasmonean revolt in the second century BCE.
The Hasmoneans, a priestly family but not of the Zadokite line, cast out the Hellenizers from Jerusalem but instead of restoring the Zadokite line installed their own members in the high priesthood. Some of the Zadokites and their followers challenged the legitimacy of the Hasmonean priestly leadership and seceded from Temple service.
This conflict between the Zadokite “secessionists,” as Elior calls them, and the Hasmonean usurpers is the theme of many of the most interesting scrolls found at Qumran.
Elior views the Qumran scrolls as a Zadokite library, not an Essene library as has been the consensus view. Amid the chaos and intense religious ferment of the Hasmonean period (152-37 BCE), new voices began to be heard – those of scholars known as Pharisees who disputed the legitimacy of the Hasmonean priests and kings and who argued with the Zadokite priests about the solar calendar and their claims to possess an open line to the divine.
These scholars, who would become known as rabbis or sages, were unhappy about the exclusiveness of the priests and the power they had accrued through their claims to esoteric knowledge as confidants of angels. In a game-changing move, the rabbis declared that the age of prophecy had long since ended and that the priesthood had been severed from ongoing access to higher authority. According to one rabbinic tradition, prophecy had ended with the destruction of the First Temple in the sixth century BCE. According to another, it ended when Alexander the Great and the Hellenizers arrived two centuries later.
The priests vigorously rejected this downsizing. The rabbis favored a lunar calendar, says Elior, because they saw it symbolically freeing the nation from dependence on a closed priestly caste locked into the solar calendar and claiming divine authority. They wanted to symbolize instead man’s share in the determination of time and of his own fate. “They declared that human understanding of sacred writings was a legitimate source of authority.” The month would now not commence according to a solar calendar precalculated for eternity but by mortals scanning the sky for the new moon, perhaps disagreeing about the sighting among themselves, perhaps even erring.
A MODERN-DAY reminder of the rabbinic victory in their epic struggle with the priests can be witnessed outside Orthodox synagogues one night a month, when the congregation emerges to pronounce the prayer for the new moon. In choosing the works that would comprise the biblical canon, says Elior, the principle criteria of the rabbis was to exclude those which invoked the solar calendar and endowed the priests with ongoing divine authority. “They were saying by this, ‘The old age has ended and a new age has begun.’” Similar symbolic moves would follow the French Revolution when a radically new calendar, including a 10-day week, was adopted, and following the Russian Revolution when the Gregorian calendar used in the West was substituted for the Julian calendar followed by the Russian Orthodox Church. The issue was less the measure of time, notes Elior, than the measure of man’s sovereignty.
Alongside the texts that the rabbis accepted into the canon, they created a parallel framework of oral law which they themselves – not the priests – would develop and which would become ever more relevant over the centuries to the evolving circumstances of Jewish life. The first major compilation, the Mishna, would be completed by 200 CE. In the following centuries, sages in Palestine and Babylonia would complete the Talmud.
These compilations would remain oral – the ancients having a capacity for memorizing enormous texts – until the eighth or ninth centuries when they were finally put into writing. The sages represented a strongly democratic strain. Study was open to all Jewish men and was not a matter of dynasty and inherited privilege. Rabbi Akiva had been a shepherd. Other sages had been farmers and craftsmen. Resh Lakish was a reformed bandit. The Oral Law, says Elior, was “open to study and interpretation by the entire male Jewish population.” The meritocracy that emerged displaced the hereditary leadership of the priestly clans which had traced their dynasty, link by link, back to Moses’s brother, Aaron. “The rabbis transferred the center of gravity,” says Elior, “from a regular, priestly ritual, anchored in holy time and holy place, to an ever-changing order entrusted to sages from all classes of the population, who took charge of humanly declared time and taught a new perception of holiness.” The debate between the sages and the priests ended abruptly with the Roman conquest.
Following the destruction of the Temple, the priestly order was shattered and the rabbis were free to reconfigure the playing field. They not only discarded the apocryphal texts but, according to Elior, probably amended some passages in the books they would include in the Bible to minimize references to the solar calendar, to angels and to the story of Enoch. By doing so, the sages prepared the Jewish people for the long haul through the ages. The conduit to the divine was no longer a monumental building in Jerusalem served by a priestly caste. As they went into exile, the Jews took with them the Sabbath and the Bible but were no longer dependent on a specific holy place or on priestly intermediaries. From now on a quorum of 10 ordinary Jews assembling in the humblest of rooms, or in no room at all, could, anywhere in the world talk directly to God.

Enoch’s Calender – Fragments from Qumran: 

Other: http://www.uhl.ac/files/1113/3527/7720/ReassessingQumransCalendars.pdf

Original article [link to www.jpost.com]